References on loudspeaker design and noise reduction

Last modified: 30 October 2008

Contents

Cabinet diffraction effects
Digital crossovers
Subwoofer crossovers
Transmission line speaker design
Horn speaker design
Group delay in loudspeakers
Low-frequency sound reproduction in rooms
Loudspeaker manifolds
Acoustical damping materials
Loudspeaker modelling using spice
Power content of program material and active speakers
Filter assisted loudspeakers
Loudspeaker design
Tape recording and noise reduction systems

Cabinet diffraction effects

Acoustical Engineering, H.F. Olson (Republished by Professional Audio Journals, PO Box 31718, Philadelphia, PA 19147-7718, USA, published 1991, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 91-075297) See Section 1.11 Refraction and Diffraction and Section 6.8 Loudspeaker Baffles.

"The diffraction produced by cylindrical and cubical obstacles and by circular and square plates", G.G. Muller, R. Black and T.E. Davis, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, July 1938, Vol. 10, pp. 6-13.

"Geometrical theory of diffraction", J.B. Keller, Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 52, No. 2, February 1962, pp. 116-130.

"Direct radiator loudspeaker enclosures", H.F. Olson, J. Audio Eng. Soc., January 1969, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 22-29. (Shows diffraction effects of 12 different enclosure shapes.)

"Diffraction - the true story", Robert C. Kral, Speaker Builder, 1/80, pp. 28-33.

"Application of the geometric theory of diffraction (GTD) to diffraction at the edges of loudspeaker baffles", R.M. Bews and M.J. Hawksford, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 34, No. 10, 1986 October, pp. 771-779.

"Computation of diffraction for loudspeaker enclosures", J. Backmann, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 37, No. 5, 1989 May, pp. 353-382.

"A simple theory of cabinet edge diffraction", J. Vanderkooy, Preprint 2896, AES 88th Convention, 1990 March 13-16. "A dual-baffle loudspeaker enclosure for balanced reverberant sound", R.E. Gonzalez, Preprint 3203, AES 91st Convention, 1991 October 4-8.

"Improving the listening conditions in sound control rooms by mounting the loudspeakers in a large baffle", O. Salmensaari, J. Borenius and J. Backmann, Preprint 3571, AES 94th Convention, 1993 March 16-19.

"On loudspeaker cabinet diffraction", S. Rasmussen and K. Rasmussen, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 42, No. 3, 1994 March, pp. 147-150.

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Digital crossovers

"Application of digital filters to loudspeaker crossover networks", R.J. Wilson, G.J. Adams and J.B. Scott, Preprint 2600, AES 84th Convention, 1988 March 1-4.

"Digital FIR filters for loudspeaker crossover networks", P.L. Schuck and Greg Klowak, Preprint 2702, AES 85th Convention, 1988 November 3-6.

"Efficient filter design for loudspeaker equalization", R. Greenfield and M. Hawksford, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 39, No. 10, 1991 October, pp. 739-751.

Comments on "Efficient filter design for loudspeaker equalization", J. Mourjopoulos, Letters to the Editor, including authors' reply. J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 5, 1993 May, pp. 364-366.

"A compact digital signal processing system consisting of DSP modules", J. Kuriyama, T. Tokko, S. Suzuki and Y. Hashiguchi, Preprint 2771, AES 86th Convention, 1989 March 7-10.

"Digital filter application for an in-phase and linear-phase loudspeaker system", N. Kyomo, Preprint 2897, AES 88th Convention, 1990 March 13-16.

"Equalization of loudspeaker drive units considering both on- and off-axis responses", R. Wilson, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 39, No. 3, 1991 March, pp. 127-139.

"Digital filter application for an in-phase and linear-phase loudspeaker system: realization of a two-way loudspeaker system", N. Kyouno, Y. Ooshuga, N. Yashima and S. Himori, Preprint 3204, AES 91st Convention, 1991 October 4-8.

"Adaptive filters for loudspeakers and rooms", R. Genereux, Preprint 3375, AES 93rd Convention, 1992 October 1-4.

"A powerful new VLSI processor for digital audio", J.G. Ables, C.E. Jacka and J.D. Bunton, Preprint 3438, AES 93rd Convention, 1992 October 1-4.

"Digital-crossover design strategy for drive units with impaired and noncoincident polar characteristics", A. Rimell and M.O. Hawksford, Preprint 3750, AES 95th Convention, 1993 October 7-10.

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Subwoofer crossovers

"Construction project: Active crossover for subwoofers", R. Evans, Electronics Australia, September 1984, pp. 58-66.

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Transmission line speaker design

"Transmission Line loudspeakers", G. Galo, 1, 2/82, Speaker Builder.

"Experiments with Tapered Lines", D. Weems, 2/87 p.18, Speaker Builder.

"The Unline: Designing Shorter Transmission Lines", J. Cockroft, 4/88, p.28, Speaker Builder.

"Symmetrical Speaker System with Dual Transmission Lines", P. Hillman, 5/89, p. 10, Speaker Builder.

"Fibrous Effects on Acoustical TLs", R.J. Spear and A. F. Thornhill, 5/91 p.11, Speaker Builder.

"A Study of Transmission Line Loudspeakers", G.S. Letts, Thesis, University of Sydney School of Electrical Engineering, Australia.

The Loudspeaker Design Cookbook, Vance Dickason.

Great Sound Stereo Speaker Manual, David Weems.

Designing, Building and Testing your Own Complete Loudspeaker System, David Weems.

Quick and Easy Transmission Line Speaker Design, Larry D. Sharp (available from OCSL). (Booklet with software on TL design.)

"A Non-resonant Loudspeaker Enclosure", A.R. Bailey, Wireless World, October 1965, pp. 483-486.

"Non-Resonant Loudspeaker Enclosure", J.R. Ogilvie and A.R. Bailey, Letters to the editor, Wireless World, November 1965, pp. 553-554.

"Loudspeaker Enclosures", E.A. Harman, D.A. Barlow, and A.R. Bailey, Letters to the editor, Wireless World, December 1965, p. 614-615.

Articles by Wright on TL speaker design, Hi-Fi News and Record Review, July 1970 and August 1970. (Please email ww@netwide.com.au if you have exact references to these. A photocopy for research purposes would also be very handy!)

"The Transmission-line Loudspeaker Enclosure", A.R. Bailey, Wireless World, May 1972, pp. 215-217.

"Non-Resonant Loudspeaker Enclosure Design, High Fidelity Designs", A.R. Bailey, Wireless World, 1974, pp. 87-90.

"Transmission Line Theory Applied to Sound Wave Propagation in Tubes With Compliant Walls", R.W. Guelke and A.E. Bunn, Acustica, Vol. 48, 1981, pp. 101-106.

"A Transmission-Line Woofer Model", R.M. Bullock, Preprint No. 2384, 81st Audio Engineering Society Convention, 1986 November 12-16, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

"A Computational Model of Transmission Line Loudspeakers", J. Backman, Preprint No. 3326, 92nd Audio Engineering Society Convention, 1992 March 24-27, Vienna, Austria.

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Horn speaker design

"Loudspeaker Acoustics - Horn Design", Electronics, June 1941, pp. 58.

"A Low-Frequency Horn of Small Dimensions", P.W. Klipsch, J. Audio Eng. Soc., March 1979, Vol. 27, No. 3, p.141-148. (Reprint of article from J. Acoust. Soc. Am, Vol. 13, pp. 137-144, 1941 October)

"Design Factors in Horn-Type Speakers", D.J. Plach, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 1, pp. 276-281, 1953 October.

"Development of Horn-Type Moving Coil Driver Unit", J.K. Hilliard, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 14, No. 4, 1966, pp. 252-xxx.

"360 degree Conical Wavefront Loudspeaker for the New York World's Fair", J.E. Volkmann, A.R. Morgan, and H.F. Olson, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 16, No. 2, 1968, pp. 130-xxx.

"One Kilowatt Cylindrical Wavefront Loudspeaker for the New York World's Fair", J.E. Volkmann, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 16, No. 2, 1968, pp. 136-xxx.

"Horn-Loaded Electrostatic Loudspeaker", J. Merhaut, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 19, No. 10, 1971, pp. 840-xxx.

"Acoustical Impedance, and the Theory of Horns and of the Phonograph", A.G. Webster, J. Audio Eng. Soc., January/February 1977, Vol. 25, No. 1/2, pp. 24-28. (Reprint of 1919 article)

"The Function and Design of Horns For Loudspeakers", C.R. Hanna and J. Slepian, J. Audio Eng. Soc., September 1977, Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 573-585. (Reprint of 1924 article)

"Discussion: The Function and Design of Horns For Loudspeakers", J. Audio Eng. Soc., March 1978, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 131-138. (Reprint of 1924 article)

"A High-Efficiency Receiver for a Horn-Type Loudspeaker of Large Power Capacity", E.C. Wente and A.L. Thuras, J. Audio Eng. Soc., March 1978, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 139-xxx. (Reprint of 1928 article)

"A Study of Theatre Loud Speakers and the Resultant Development of the Shearer Two-Way Horn System", J.K. Hilliard, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Nov 1978, Vol. 26, No. 11, pp. 843-850. (Reprint of 1936 article)

"High-Efficiency Three-Way Speaker System", S.J. White, J. Audio Eng. Soc., July 1955, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 155-159.

"Horn-Type Electrothermal Loudspeakers", T.S. Paige and M.A.K. Hamid, IEEE Trans. on Audio and Electroacoustics, Vol. AU-20, No. 3, Aug 1972, pp. 218-222.

"Horn Loudspeaker Design", J. Dinsdale, Wireless World, March 1974, pp. 19-24. Note: In his paper, Parow mentions there are errors in the tables of tractrix horn lengths.

"Horn Loudspeaker Design - Part 2", J. Dinsdale, Wireless World, May 1974, pp. 133-138.

"Horn Loudspeaker Design - Part 3", J. Dinsdale, Wireless World, June 1974, pp. 186-190.

"Horn Loudspeaker Design", Letters to the Editor, T. Hevreng and J. Dinsdale's reply, Wireless World, June 1974, pp. 180.

"Horn Loudspeaker Design", Letters to the Editor, J. Dinsdale, Wireless World, May 1982, pp. 60.

"The Manta-Ray Horns", C.A. Henricksen and M.S. Ureda, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 26, No. 9, 1978, pp. 629-xxx.

"Historical review of horns used for audience-type sound reproduction", J.K. Hilliard, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 59, No. 1, January 1976, pp. 1-8.

"An efficiency constant comparison between low-frequency horns and direct-radiators", D.B. Keele, Jr., AES Preprint 1127, 54th Convention, May 4-7 1976.

"A New Piezoelectric Driver Enhances Horn Performance", J.R. Bost, J. Audio Eng. Soc., 1980 April, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 244-249.

"Acoustic Radiation of a Horn Loudspeaker by the Finite Element Method - Acoustic Characteristics of a Horn Loudspeaker with an Elastic Diaphragm", N. Kyounu, S. Sakai, S. Morita, T. Yamabuchi, and Y. Kagawa, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 30, No. 12, 1982 Dec, pp. 896-905.

"A new look at horn speakers", A. Orlowski, Hi-Fi News & Record Review, January 1983, pp. 39-43.

"A loudspeaker horn that covers a flat recatngular area from an oblique angle", D.B. Keele, Jr., AES Preprint 2052, 74th Convention, Oct 8-12 1983.

"Horn layout simplified", B. Thurmond, AES Preprint 2167, 76th Convention, Oct 8-11 1984.

"Wide dispersion frequency invariant acoustic lens", M.W. Ferralli and J. White, AES Preprint 2267, 79th Convention, Oct 12-16 1985.

"Computer Simulation of Horn Loaded Compression Drivers", E. Geddes and D. Clark, AES Preprint 2286, 79th Convention, Oct 12-16 1985.

"Spruce moose: a slightly bent horn", E.J. Czerwinski, M.D. Buck, and A. Duncan, AES Preprint 2311, 79th Convention, Oct 12-16 1985.

"Optimization procedure for computer designing a horn loudspeaker", M.A. Milosevic and M.V. Gmitrovic, AES Preprint 2360, 79th Convention, Oct 12-16 1985.

"An omnidirectional sound source", P. Lunden, AES Preprint 2431, 82nd Convention, March 10-13 1987.

"Horn speaker having continuously changing cross section", M. Ohkawa and H. Yoshii, AES Preprint 2664, 2nd Regional Convention, Tokyo, Jun 17-19 1987.

"Horn Loading Revisited", R.M. Harris, Elektor in Australian Electronics Monthly, Oct 1987, pp. 38-44.

"Acoustic waveguide theory", E.R. Geddes, AES Preprint 2547, 83rd Convention, Oct 16-19 1987.

"General equivalent electrical circuits for acoustic horns", J. Kergomard, AES Preprint 2575, 84th Convention, March 1-4 1988.

"Equivalent circuits for conical waveguides", A.H. Benade, J. Acoust. Soc. Am, Vol. 83, No. 5, May 1988, pp. 1764-1769.

"Apparent apex part II: the three dimensional case", M. Ureda, AES Preprint 3040, 90th Convention, February 19-22, 1991.

"Tractrix Horns: Improved Imaging and Phasing", R. Delgado, K. Geist, and J. Hunter, Audio, March 1991, pp. 36-40.

"Horn Modelling with Conical and Cylindrical Transmission Line Elements", D. Mapes-Riordan, AES Preprint 3194, 91st Convention, Oct 4-8, 1991.

"Apparent apex part III: the three dimensional case", M. Ureda, AES Preprint 3166, 91st Convention, Oct 4-8, 1991.

"Modeling of the Nonlinear Behaviour of a Horn Loaded Compression Driver System", R. Schmitt and W. Klippel, AES Preprint 3256, 92nd Convention, March 24-27, 1992.

"Impulse Meaasurement of Acoustic Impedance of Horns", P. Pribyl and D. Holan, AES Preprint 3270, 92nd Convention, March 24-27, 1992.

"A Computational Model of Horn Loudspeakers", J. Backman, AES Preprint 3512, 94th Convention, March 16-19, 1993.

"Directivity Phase Response of Horns", M.S. Ureda, AES Preprint 3593, 94th Convention, March 16-19, 1993.

"The Boundary Element Method and Horn Design", D.J. Henwood, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 6, 1993 Jun, pp. 485-496.

"Round the horn", P. Newell, Studio Sound, March 1994, pp. 59-nnn.

Comments on "Horn Modelling with Conical and Cylindrical Transmission Line Elements", Letters to the Editor, J.T. Post and E.L. Hixson (including author's reply), J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 42, No. 6, 1994 June, pp. 497-498.

"The Convolution Method for Horn Array Directivity Prediction", M.S. Ureda, AES Preprint 3790, 96th Convention, February 26-March 1, 1994.

"Beam Width Change of Transducer Array Directional Patterns", D. Ruser, AES Preprint 3829, 96th Convention, February 26-March 1, 1994.

"On the Specification of Moving-Coil Drivers for Low-Frequency Horn-Loaded Loudspeakers", W. Marshall Leach, Jr., J. Audio Eng. Soc., 1979 December, Vol. 27, No. 12, pp. 950-959.

"Every One-Parameter Acoustic Field Obeys Webster's Horn Equation", G.R. Putland, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 6, 1993, pp. 435-xxx.

"Acoustic Waveguide Theory Revisited", E.R. Geddes, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 6, 1993, pp. 452-xxx.

"Acoustic Waveguides - In Practice", P.D. Bauman, A.B. Adamson, & E.R. Geddes, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 6, 1993, pp. 462-xxx.

"Measurement of Input Impedance of Loudspeaker Horns", T. Salava, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 29, No.6, 1981, pp. 416-xxx.

"Impulse Measurement of Horn-Type Loudspeaker Drivers", J. Merhaut, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 34, No. 4, 1986, pp. 245-xxx.

More on "Impulse Measurement of Horn-Type Loudspeaker Drivers", J. Merhaut, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 35, No. 3, 1987, pp. 144-xxx.

"Designing horn loudspeakers", Ketil Parow, Electronics and Wireless World, January 1996, pp. 12-16.

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Group delay in loudspeakers

"Group Delay Distortions in Electroacoustical Systems", J. Blauert and P. Laws, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 63, Number 5, pp. 1478-1483 (May 1978).

"Group and phase delay requirements for loudspeaker systems", J.R. Ashley (Koss Corporation), ICASSP (International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing), 1980 April, pp. 1030-1033.

"The spatial alignment of loudspeaker drivers on a baffle - effects on system amplitude and phase responses", W.M. Leach, Jr., ICASSP 1980 April, pp. 494-497.

"Measures and perception of phase distortion in electroacosutic systems", D. Pries, ICASSP 1980 April, pp. 490-493.

"The Missing Octaves", T. Atwell, Hi-Fi News & Record Review, February 1983, pp. 31-33.

"The subjective importance of uniform group delay at low frequencies", L.R. Fincham (KEF Electronics), J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 6, 1985 June, pp. 436-439.

"Subwoofer performance for accurate reproduction of music", L.D. Fielder and E.M. Benjamin, AES Preprint 2537, 83rd Convention, October 16-19, 1987.

"On the audibility of group distortion at low frequencies", G.J. Krauss (DYNACORD Electronic), AES Preprint 2894, 88th Convention, March 13-16, 1990.

"The audibility of loudspeaker phase distortion", R. Greenfield and M. Hawksford, AES Preprint 2927, 88th Convention, March 13-16, 1990.

"The audibility of spectral precedence", W. Woszczyk and G. Soulodre, AES Preprint 3353, 93rd Convention, Oct 1-4, 1992. (Describes research testing the audibility of simulated group delay distortion.)

"Observations on the audibility of acoustic polarity", R.A. Greiner and D. Melton, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 42, No.4, 1994 April, pp. 245-253.

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Low-frequency sound reproduction in rooms

"Interference patterns in reverberant sound fields", R.V. Waterhouse, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 27, p. 247, 1955.

"Output of a sound source in a reverberation chamber and other reflecting environments", R.V. Waterhouse, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 30, p. 4, 1958.

"Interference patterns in reverberant sound fields II", R.V. Waterhouse and R.V. Cook, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 37, p. 424, 1965.

"The influence of room boundaries on loudspeaker power output", R.F. Allison, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 22, p. 314, 1974.

"Listening conditions in an almost direct sound field", E.J. Volker, AES Preprint 1314, 59th Convention, 1978.

"Room modes and deep tone Reproduction in control rooms for music monitoring", E.J. Volker, Preprint 2354, AES 80th Convention, 1986.

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Loudspeaker manifolds

"Loudspeaker manifolds for high-level concert sound reinforcement", David Carlson and David Gunness (Electro-Voice Inc), AES Preprint 2387, 81st Convention, November 12-16, 1986.

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Acoustical damping materials

"Electroacoustic analogous circuit models for filled enclosures", W.M. Leach, J. Audio Eng. Soc., July/August 1989.

"The use of fibrous materials in loudspeaker enclosures", L.J.S. Bradbury, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 24, No. 3, March 1976, p. 162. Comments J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 25, No. 3, March 1977, p. 121.

"Fibrous tangle effects on acoustical transmission lines", R.J. Spear and A.F. Thornhill, Speaker Builder Issue 5, 1991.

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Loudspeaker modelling using spice

"Computer-aided electroacoustic design with SPICE", W.M. Leach, Jr., J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 39, No. 7/8, July/August 1991, pp. 551-563.

"Loudspeaker impedance non-linearity and bi-wiring", Glenn Leembruggen and Jonathan Scott, AES 4th Australian Regional Convention, Melbourne, August 24-26 1993, Preprint 3693.

"Electro acoustical simulations by using SPICE", D. Ehrhardt, AES 94th Convention, Berlin, March 16-19 1993, Preprint 3544.

"Simple SPICE models for the analysis of moving coil loudspeakers", David J. Murphy, AES 4th Australian Regional Convention, Melbourne, August 24-26 1993, Preprint 3690.

"An axisymmetric model of a moving-coil loudspeaker", David J. Murphy, AES 4th Australian Regional Convention, Melbourne, August 24-26 1993, Preprint 3691.

"Axisymmetric model of a moving-coil loudspeaker", David J. Murphy, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 41, No. 9, September 1993, pp. 679-690.

"SPICE models for Vacuum-tube amplifiers", W.M. Leach, Jr., J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 43, No. 3, March 1995, pp. 117-126.

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Power content of program material and active speakers

"Power Bandwidth, Frequency Response, and Music Spectra", V. Brociner, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 13, No. 4, October 1965, pp. 319-322.

"Bi-Amplification - Power vs. Program Material vs. Crossover Frequency", J.M. Lovda and S. Muchow, Audio, September 1975, pp. 20-28.

"Loudspeaker System Design", S.J. Linkwitz, Wireless World, Vol 84, May 1978 p.52, June 1978 p. 67, and December 1978 pp. 79-83.

"Power and Real Signals in Audio Systems", G. Penkow, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 31, No. 6, June 1983, pp. 423-429.

"Signal Power Spectrum Aspects in Loudspeaker Design", H. Mayr, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 32, pp. 673-676 (1984 September). See also comments by J.M. Woodgate, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 33, p. 249 (1985 April), and Mayr's reply, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 33, p. 249 (1985 April).

"The Case For Active Speaker Systems", B. Stuart, Audio, September 1987, pp. 64-70.

"Design of a high power active control room monitor", I. Martikainen, A. Varla and T. Partanen, AES 86th Convention, Hamburg, March 7-10 1989, Preprint 2755.

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Filter assisted loudspeakers

"A Loudspeaker System Design Utilizing a Sixth-Order Butterworth Response Characteristic", R.J. Newman, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 21, No. 6, July/August 1973, pp. 450-456.

"A New Set of Sixth-Order Vented-Box Loudspeaker System Alignments", D.B. Keele, Jr., J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 23, No. 5, June 1975, pp. 354-360.

"Loudspeaker System Design", S. Linkwitz, Wireless World, May 1978, p. 52-xx. Reprinted in Speaker Builder, Issue 2, 1980.

"Loudspeaker System Design - Part 2", S. Linkwitz, Wireless World, June 1978, p. 67-xx. Reprinted in Speaker Builder, Issue 3, 1980.

"Loudspeaker System Design", S. Linkwitz, Wireless World, December 1978, pp. 79-83. Reprinted in Speaker Builder, Issue 3, 1980.

"Synthesis of High-Pass Filtered Loudspeaker Systems: Part 1 - Isolated Filters Driving Second-Order (Closed-Box) Systems. J.E. Benson, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 27, No. 7/8, July/August 1979, pp. 548-561.

"Synthesis of High-Pass Filtered Loudspeaker Systems: Part 1a - A Supplementary Note on QB2, SC3, and SC4 Alignments", J.E. Benson, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 27, No. 9, September 1979, pp. 667-672.

"Synthesis of High-Pass Filtered Loudspeaker Systems: Part 2 - Isolated Filters Driving Fourth-Order (Reflex) Systems. J.E. Benson, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 27, No. 10, October 1979, pp. 769-779.

"Dynamic Equalization for Loudspeakers", D.R. von Recklinghausen, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 28, No. 11, November 1980, pp. 770-775.

"Alignment of Filter-Assisted Vented-Box Loudspeaker Systems with Enclosure Losses", R.A.R. Bywater and H.J. Weibell, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 1982, pp. 306-317. Corrections: J. Audio
Eng. Society, Vol. 30, No. 9, September 1982, p. 621.

"Synthesis of Loudspeaker Mechanical Parameters by Electrical Means: A New Method for Controlling Low-Frequency Loudspeaker Behaviour", K.E. Stahl, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 29, No. 9, September 1981, pp. 587-596.

"Active Equalization of Closed-Box Loudspeaker Systems", W.M. Leach, Jr., J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 29, No. 6, June 1981, pp. 405-407.

"Transient-Response Equalization of Sealed-Box Loudspeakers", V. Staggs, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 30, No. 12, December 1982, pp. 906-911.

"Electronic Equalization of Closed-Box Loudspeakers", R.A. Greiner and M. Schoessow, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 31, No. 3, March 1983, pp. 125-134. Comments on this paper: J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 31, No. 11, November 1983, p. 862.

"Closed-Box Loudspeaker System Equalization and Power Requirements", G. Penkov and B. Traianov, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 33, No. 6, June 1985, pp. 447-451.

"Are Equalized Closed-Boxes Preferable to Vented-Boxes", E. Zaustinsky, Preprint 2415, 81st AES Convention, 1986 November 12-16, Los Angeles, California.

"A Generalized Active Equalizer for Closed-Box Loudspeaker Systems", W.M. Leach, Jr., J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 38, No. 3, March 1990, pp. 142-145.

"Development of a Compact Dipole Loudspeaker", S. Linkwitz, Preprint 3431, 93rd AES Convention, 1992, October 1-4, San Francisco.

"Big bass, small box", J.P. Macauley, Electronics World and Wireless World, February 1994, pp. 107-111.

"Bigger bass, smaller box", J.P. Macauley, Electronics World and Wireless World, June 1995, pp. 469-475.

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Loudspeaker design

"Personal Calculator Programs For Approximate Vented-Box and Closed-Box Loudspeaker System Design", G. Margolis and R.H. Small, J. Audio Eng. Society, Vol. 29, No. 6, June 1981, pp. 421-441.

"Time-Frequency Distributions of Loudspeakers: The Application of the Wigner Distribution", by C.P. Janse and A.J.M. Kaizer, JAES, Vol. 31, No. 4, April 1983, p. 198.

"The Wigner Distribution: A Valuable Tool for Investigating Transient Distortion", by C.P. Janse and A.J.M. Kaizer, JAES, Vol. 32, No. 11, November 1984, p. 868.

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Tape recording and noise reduction systems

"An Audio Noise Reduction System", R.M. Dolby, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 15, pp. 383-388, 1967 October. (Describes Dolby A.)

"Dolby B-type Noise Reduction System", R. Berkovitz and K.J. Gundry, Audio, 1973 September and October.

"Noise Reduction", F. Ogden, Studio Sound, September 1976, pp. 36-43.

"The Noise Jungle", H. Ford, Studio Sound, August 1977, pp. 26-34.

"Tutorial Review of Magnetic Recording", J.C. Mallinson, Proc. of the IEEE, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 1978, pp. 196-208.

"All That Data: Tape Deck Frequency Response and Headroom", H.A. Roberson, Audio, January 1981, pp. 24-25.

"Dolby C-type Noise Reduction", J. Hull, Audio, May 1981, pp. 20-??.

"Understanding Equalization and Time Constants", H. Burstein, Audio, February 1982, pp. 26-31.

"A 20dB Audio Noise Reduction System for Consumer Applications", R. Dolby, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 31, No. 3, 1983 March, pp. 98-112. (Provides an excellent description of Dolby C noise reduction system.)

"Recording With Feedback-Controlled Effective Bias", J.S. Jensen, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 31, No. 10, 1983 October, pp. 729-736.

"The Spectral Recording Process", R. Dolby, J. Audio Eng. Soc., Vol. 35, No. 3, 1987 March, pp. 99-118.

"Tape-to-Deck Matching For Best Dolby Tracking", H.A. Roberson, Audio, September 1989, pp. 44-46.

"Introducing Dolby S-Type Noise Reduction", K. Gundry and J. Hull, Audio, June 1990, pp. 51-59.

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