A frame of organic comb honey before and after uncapping

SUGAR GUM (Eucalyptus cladocalyx)

Sugar Gum is native to South Australia, occurring on the southern Flinders Ranges, Kangaroo Island and Eyre Peninsula, Large stands of mature age trees exist along water-courses on Kangaroo Island which is perhaps the only area where Sugar Gum can be harvested as a pure varietal honey on an annual basis. The honey is light in colour with a delicate sweet flavour and is a premium quality table honey.

The light yellowish-brown timber is hard, heavy and used for poles, construction and fencing. Sugar Gum trees are known for dropping large branches in windy conditions creating nesting hollows for birds and possums. Sugar gum is named for the sweet flavour of young leaves, which can be lightly browsed by livestock.

Sugar Gum is a valuable shelter belt tree and wind break, growing well on a variety of soils to a height of 30 meters.

CUP GUM (Eucalyptus cosmophylla)

Cup Gum (so named for the large sized gum nuts, compared with other species) is an hardy Eucalypt, growing as an understory plant with a height of 2 to 5 meters in undisturbed scrub but developing into a substantial tree to about 10 meters where space permits.

Cup Gum is native to the Mt. Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island, often existing on acid, infertile soils along creeks and watercourses. The timber is a favored choice by wood-turners for small craft objects.

The trees flower annually from late autumn through early winter yielding a rich smooth textured honey with a hint of caramel flavour.


Different species of Eucalypt flower in cycles on Kangaroo Island varying from annual to 7 years. The nectar sources for Eucalypt label honey are selected eucalypts yielding a full depth flavour medium density , medium to dark amber colour honey.

Many eucalypts grow as mallee (multi-trunked) and are valuable as shelter belts, sources of firewood and fence posts and as homes to wild life, such as kangaroos, wallabies, possums and birds.


Wildflower sources vary according to the season. It is a full-flavoured, medium to dark amber, medium density honey. Bees will forage for nectar only when the temperature is over 14 degrees so the winter honey harvest extends over several months during which time several different species may be in bloom.

Wildflower honey is collected from flowering species of banksia, hakea, melaleucas and flowering annuals.


The nectar source for creamed honey is selected from the many nectar sources flowering in spring amongst the pasture and food crops on Kangaroo Island. These plants rely upon pollination by bees to set seeds and they yield a generous supply of nectar. Pollination by bees increases crop yield by up to 30% with larger and heavier seeds resulting. Spring flora honey is produced from various spring flowering species such as clover, lucerne, canola, capeweed and other pasture plants.

Spring flora honey is a light colour honey with good density and a distinctive, mild flavour.


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History of sanctuary

Environmental niche

Queen bees - origin and role

Kangaroo Island queen bees

More about bees

Nectar sources

Honey Types

Honey recipes


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