Genetic Evidence

 

This page is essential reading for anyone seriously interested in the origins of the Polynesians. Those of you gifted with logical thinking and possess an open mind will be able to follow this intriguing detective story. With new research, some of you may even be able to take this story much further. Those of you who have been indoctrinated with false truths and outdated dogmas will have much trouble in grasping this new understanding of  how the world once was.

The following genetic information gives us a fairly clear picture of the genetic connections in the Pacific region, which shows that Polynesians left S.E. Asia 11,500 years ago and departed from the Taiwan area 6000 years ago. They spent 3,800years in Alaska/Canada before travelling South West to Hawai'i 2,200 years ago (genetics and family genealogies confirm this figure) and eventually south to Tahiti about 1,400 years ago and then on to New Zealand about 1,000 years ago (The last two figures are yet to be verified from Tahitian and Maori genealogies).

Geneticists have found that Polynesians do share a common male ancestor (Y chromozome) 11,500 years ago, with the short, dark frizzy haired New Guinea highlanders - genes from the ancient pygmy tribes that once populated the planet over 100,000 years ago. Significant populations of these people can still be found amongst the Andaman islanders and the Negritos of the Phillippines. Polynesians ceased contact with these people 11,500 years ago and to even the layman, their physical characteristics clearly show that they have evolved quite separately. It is important to note that this ancient genetic connection with Negrito Pygmies - not Melanesians, does not even remotely suggest that Polynesians entered island Melanesia at this time, as these people were much more widespread throughout S.E. Asia. The connection most likely happened on the Sunda platform, before it was inundated 11,500 years ago. More importantly, Polynesian genes appear to be related to the Taiwanese, but show a disconnection from there 6000 years ago. Of all the people along the Pacific shores, they have the closest genetic affinity with the Tlingit of North Western Canada. HLA Bw48 is a rare antigen that clearly connects these people. A genetic separation from here was 2200 years ago. Genetics also shows that 2,200 years ago, Polynesians experienced a rapid population expansion in isolation, most likely in Hawaii. This concurs with Polynesian history, asserting that Hawaii was their homeland. Genetics also shows that a caucasian element crept into Polynesia, bringing with it HLA antigens; A11, A29 and B12. The presence of these genes in Polynesia confirm that the direction of migration was; from and not to, Canada.

Here is what the geneticists had to say:

Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes

Manfred Kayser, Silke Brauer, Gunter Weiss, Peter A. Underhill, Lutz Roewer, Wulf Schiefenhövel and Mark Stoneking:

…. A median-joining network connecting all 39 haplotypes revealed that all Polynesian haplotypes form a tight cluster and can be connected to each other mostly by single-step mutations, with the exception of one of the West Samoan haplotypes. In contrast, Melanesian and Indonesian haplotypes appeared in different parts of the network and were separated by a large number of mutations.

To infer demographic data from Y-STR haplotypes of individuals carrying the DYS390.3del/RPS4Y711T haplotype, a Bayesian-based coalescence approach was used.

The time back to the most recent common ancestor of all 75 individuals carrying the DYS390.3 deletion on the RPS4Y711T chromosome background was estimated to be 11,500 years . A signal of slight population growth dating back to the start of a population expansion ~6,000 years ago was detected. When the analysis was restricted to Polynesians, a much stronger

signal of population growth was detected, indicating a population expansion starting about 2,200 years ago.

Haplotype diversity and the mean number of pairwise differences were higher in Melanesia than in Polynesia or Indonesia and a coalescence-based approach indicated that the deletion arose about 11,500 years ago.

These results therefore indicate that the major Y-chromosome haplotype in Polynesians originated in Melanesia 11,500 years ago.

The diversity associated with DYS390.3del/RPS4Y711T haplotype suggests a Melanesian origin, and the date for the origin of this haplotype  of 11,500 years, substantially predates any other evidence for human occupation of Polynesia.

Bing Su et al, University of Texas , found no evidence for a Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes, because their major Melanesian Y-chromosomal haplotype H17 (characterised by mutations at M4, M5 and M9) was not found in Polynesia. We also found this haplotype in high frequency in Melanesia and concur that it is absent from Polynesia;

Furthermore, the detected moderate population growth and the estimated start of population

expansion at about 6,000 years ago is in perfect agreement with archaeological data, which suggest that the Austronesian expansion started about 6,000 years ago from Asia/Taiwan.

Furthermore, the overall Y-SNP and Y-STR haplotype diversity was found to be lowest in Polynesia

when compared with the other 17 populations analysed here. Reduced genetic diversity in Polynesians has also been reported for many other genetic markers, indicating a Polynesian bottleneck.

Moreover, when dividing the total sample set of individuals carrying the DYS390.3del/RPS4Y711T haplotype into Polynesians and non-Polynesians, the population growth rate of Polynesians was estimated to be four times larger than for non-Polynesians, with a population expansion starting 2,200 years ago.

This is in agreement with the hypothesis of a bottleneck in the colonisation of Polynesia, which would result in a stronger signal of population growth coming out of the bottleneck.

Other genetic studies have also provided evidence for Melanesian gene flow into Polynesia. For example, the a-haemoglobin –a3.7 III deletion is restricted to (mainly coastal) Papua New Guinea, island Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia, and probably originated in Melanesia. Although some HLA genes in Polynesia are claimed to show Asian rather than Melanesian origin.

Also, a particular allele, HLA DRB1-0901, that was observed at high frequency (26–45%) in Polynesians and at moderate frequency (10–15%) in mainland Asia and is rare in Melanesian populations except in the Trobriands   at a frequency of 18% - (which is a Polynesian outlier).

Studies of the mtDNA 9 bp deletion marker, and the associated ‘Polynesian' sequence motif in hypervariable region I of the mtDNA control region, have suggested a Taiwanese origin for Polynesian mtDNAs. However, although most Polynesian mtDNAs have the 9 bp deletion, about 3.5–10% do not. Significantly, these Polynesian mtDNA types that lack the 9 bp deletion are found in Papua New Guinea but not elsewhere. (This suggests some Melanesian admixture into Polynesia in the last 1,000 years); moreover, all Polynesian mtDNA types are also found in Melanesia, as is the case with Polynesian Y chromosomes. This would also suggest a significant dispersal of Polynesian mtDNA in more recent times (1,000 years ago) leaving behind mtDNA types with the 9 bp deletion and incorporating Melanesian mtDNA types. This scenario is compatible with the Y chromosome results.

In summary, their studies showed that the time back to the most recent common ancestor linking the Melanesians and Polynesians was approximately 11,500 years . HLA genes in Polynesia appear to show Asian rather than Melanesian origin, as HLA DRB1-0901, was rare in Melanesian populations.

Although Polynesian genes are very similar to Taiwanese genes, the Taiwanese aboriginal people carried a different set of markers to either the Polynesians or the Micronesians, indicating a divergence and expansion in the populations about 6000 years ago. This is in perfect agreement with archaeological and linguistic data, which suggests that the Austronesian expansion started about 6,000 years ago from Asia/Taiwan. Reduced genetic diversity in Polynesians has also been reported for many other genetic markers, indicating a Polynesian bottleneck, with another population expansion starting 2,200 years ago – this is the time they arrived in Polynesia and agrees exactly with Hawaiian family genealogies that begin with Chief Nuu, 2,225 years ago. Recent Melanesian/Polynesian admixture in areas such as the Lau group, Tonga and the Polynesian outliers has occurred less than 1000 years ago.

Fijian chiefs with and without mixed Polynesian ancestry

Here are a few other papers which confirm that Polynesians had minimal contact with Melanesians - as would be expected with a cursory glance at their physical features. This means that Melanesia - the homeland of Lapita, had little to do with the genesis of Polynesians.

Mitochondrial DNA variability of West New Guinea populations M. Tommaseo-Ponzetta, M. Attimonell, M. De Robertis, F. Tanzariello, C. Saccone, Am J Phys Anthropol 117:49-67, 2002

"Sequencing identified 73 polymorphic sites defining 89 haplotypes; the 9-bp deletion, which is considered a marker of Austronesian migration in the Pacific, was found to be absent in the whole West New Guinea study sample.........Comparisons with worldwide HVS 1 sequences stored in the MitBASE database show the absence of these patterns outside Oceania and a few Indonesian subjects, who also lack the 9-bp deletion."

So where is the evidence of Polynesians passing slowly through New Guinea or S.E. Asia as the Lapita people?

The Genetic Structure of Pacific Islanders  Jonathan S. Friedlaender, Françoise R. Friedlaender, Floyd A. Reed, Kenneth K. Kidd, Judith R. Kidd, Geoffrey K. Chambers, Rodney A. Lea, Jun-Hun Loo, George Koki, Jason A. Hodgson, D. Andrew Merriwether, James L. Weber.

"Polynesians are closely related to Asian/Taiwanese Aboriginal populations, while they are very weakly associated with any Melanesian groups".

Susan Serjeantson identified some crucial HLA antigens that show quite clearly the connection between Canada and Polynesia as well as other HLA antigens that clearly show that Melanesians and Polynesians have a totally separate ancestry;

S.W. Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7 "The following genes set them apart: Polynesians lack HLA-B27 , wheras it is common amongst Melanesians.

HLA-Bw48 is commonly found in Polynesian populations, but occurs only sporadically in Melanesia. The only other known population with an appreciable frequency of   HLA-Bw48 is that of the North American Indians or more specifically the Tlingit. In Polynesia Bw48 co-occurs with A11, - suggesting a variation since Polynesians departed from the Canadian coast.

Polynesians have had little contact with Micronesians. There are only a limited number of similarities in the HLA system. It is clear that Micronesia has had an independent source of HLA genes, probably from the Phillipines, as indicated by the high frequency of HLA-Bw35 which is absent from Melanesian and Polynesian groups.

HLA-B13, B18 and B27 are found throughout Melanesia. These antigens are sporadic in Western Polynesia and are essentially absent from the populations of Eastern Polynesia. The few sporadic occurrences are attributable to recent foreign admixture. These antigens are also rarely found in Micronesia.

HLA-A11 and B40 are significantly associated with each other in Melanesia, but are not linked in Polynesian Populations, indicating a different source of origin, possibly Caucasian.

HLA data cannot support the theory of Polynesian evolution within Melanesia.

Gene frequency distributions, as well as linkage relationships, clearly place Maoris of New Zealand in the Eastern Polynesian branch, together with Hawaiians and Easter Islanders. The HLA-A-B linkage relationships seen in Hawaiians are present also in Maoris and are consistent with a split in these populations 1,000 years ago.

Gene analysis suggests that Maoris are a genetically purer sample of the first Polynesians arriving from Canada. Being isolated in Aoteroa for 1,000 years has ensured minimal genetic admixture.

Gene frequency distributions, as well as linkage relationships, clearly place Maoris of New Zealand in the Eastern Polynesian branch, together with Hawaiians and Easter Islanders. The HLA-A-B linkage relationships seen in Hawaiians are present also in Maoris and are consistent with a split in these populations 1000 years ago.

 

From; S.W. Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific - A Genetic Trail 1989 p163  

 

These diagrams suggests that Maoris of New Zealand are a genetically purer sample of the first Polynesians arriving from North America rather than Hawai'ians. Being isolated in Aoteroa for 1,000 years has ensured minimal genetic admixture.

It is of interest that the Pima Indian population of North America shows closest affinities with the Maoris rather than the Hawaiians in phylogenetic analysis. As Pima legends and genes indicate they came from the Maya, could it be that the Maya fathered both Pima and Maori? Both these groups show the same genetic intolerance for alcohol and sugar. The Pima maintained contact with the Pacific coast and would travel back down to California to collect shells, suggesting an ancient affinity with the sea.

Theodore G Schurr and colleagues(1990) 'Both the North American Pima and the Central American Maya have high frequencies of the Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation containing the rare Asian RFLP Hine II morph 6 in conjunction with an Asian-specific 9 based pair deletion.' It appears that both the Pima and the Maya are genetically very close to the Polynesians. The arrival of these genes in America is believed to have been between 6-8,000 years ago, ruling out the possibility of Polynesian origins as Polynesians have only been in the Pacific for 2,200 years. A migration from America is far more logical.

Katsushi Tokunaga and colleagues. ‘Genetic link between Asians and Native Americans: Evidence from HLA genes and haplotypes' in Human Immunology 62 1001-1008 (2001).

HLA24-Cw8-B48, A24-Cw10-B60 and A24-Cw9-B61 were all commonly observed in Taiwan indigenous populations, Tibetans, Thais, Japanese, Orochon in North East China, Buryat, Man,Yakut, Inuit, Tlingit, Pima, Maya and Maori.' These findings further support the hypothesis that East Asia (Yonaguni/Taiwan area) was the dispersal point for all these cultures. This exodus 6-8,000 years ago coincides with the final rapid rise in sealevels at the end of the Ice Age which flooded this megalithic civilization on the island chain between Taiwan and Japan.

It is interesting to note the linguistic connectiona between 'Tai'  and 'Hai' which seems to prefix the names of many people from this homeland of Ka-Houpo-o-Kane or Ta'pen Keng. This linguistic connection takes us from Tai in Taiwan and Thai to Hai in Haida and onto Hawa in Hawaii. The linguistic connection between the homelands Hawai'i and Haida-gwai'i is also obvious.

Kayano Aida, Graciela Russomando, Mihoko Kikuchi, Norma Candia, Leticia Franco,
Maria Almiron, Ratawan Ubalee, Kenji Hirayama, Journal of Immunogenetics, Volume 54, Number 6 / September, 2002 pp439-441

The Angaite Amerindian community in Paraguay show a high frequency of the MIC null haplotype, HLA-B48-MICA-del-MICB*0107 N. The structural analyses revealed this haplotype was similar to the previously reported Asian haplotype in that they had a large-scale deletion including the entire MICA gene and linked to MICB*0107 N and HLA-B*48. The novel recombination haplotype between this MIC null haplotype and HLA-B15, HLA-B15-MICA-del-MICB*0107 N, was also found in this community.

With a common genetic ancestry stretching from East Asia across to the Americas and eventually into the Pacific, it is clear cultural connections between these people should be reviewed more seriously. We may find some surprising results. Stonework and the red and yellow crescent crest and the orange and yellow feathered robes of Hawaiian priests and chiefs show an uncanny resemblance to the robes and crescent crests worn by Tibetan priests. Such similarities will help us paint a picture of the common culture they were both once a part of on the Eastern shores of Asia (Yonaguni Jima).

Not only did ancestral Polynesians utilise the Kuroshio current to travel across to America, it appears from genetic evidence that many other different groups followed the same pathway, both before and after the 6000 BP exodus from the Taiwan area.

Some Native American tribes even talk of a Manchurian ancestry. This may go back less than 2,000 years. The Zuni have Japanese ancestry leading back to the 12th Century, so it is clear that there have been many migrations throughout history.

Kukul Khan is another of these migrations. He appears in Mayan legends, arriving from the west. In Aztec legends, this time was known as "The Age of the Fourth Sun" or "The Age of the Black Haired People", starting 5,509 B.C. Kukul Khan brought agriculture, domestication of animals and peace to the tribes of Central America. He forbade the use of weapons, even for the purposes of hunting. He was obviously trying to curtail the blood thirsty nature of the indigenous Caucasians.

Of the Polynesian migration, some did not even leave the bounds of East Asia.

Harihara and colleagues (1992) noted: When observing the ‘Frequency of a 9bp deletion in the mitochrondrial DNA among Asian populations'. It appears that the Maori, Cook Islanders, Nieu, Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji had ancestors from the Shizuoka prefecture of Japan!"

Shizuoka is near a headland that sticks out into the Kuroshio current, and is an obvious stepping off point for those not wishing to continue on to America.

The right hand arm of the Northern Equatorial Current takes one directly to Baja California where

Dr Gonzales-Jose and colleagues (2003) found 33 skulls of a tribe of people who lived there between 2,500 and 300 years ago. He found the skulls shared a closer affinity to people of South Asia rather than North Asia. Skeletons of similar people have also been found in Tierra del Fuego. These people could be from an ancient world population that covered the planet ~70,000 years ago. Relic populations of these people are most similar to Australian Aborigines and Veda Indians.

Fideas E, Leon S, and colleagues. 'HLA Trans Pacific contacts'(1995) notes that; 'a tribe living near the Pacific Colombian coast named the Noanama/Wanana, are clustered genetically closer to Japanese people than to other American natives.Novick and colleagues concur with this.'

It is obvious from these observations that the population of America went through some major changes when Austronesians entered America about 6,000 years ago. Native Americans certainly were not the product of one migration via the Bering land bridge.

The following chart is from a paper by Hansong Wang etal, named Self-reported ethnicity, genetic structure and the impact of population stratification in a multiethnic study

They examined genetic structure in a large racially and ethnically diverse sample consisting of five ethnic groups of the Multiethnic Cohort study (African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, European Americans and Native Hawaiians) using 2,509 SNPs distributed across the genome.

This chart in effect shows the path of homo sapiens out of Africa (red) showing a considerable genetic distance to the Middle East (brown) and Central south Asia (pale blue). There is a considerable genetic distance to East Asia (orange) but then America (purple) displays a very close but distinct genetic relationship to East Asia. Native Hawaiians (blue) clearly appear to be an offshoot of the American genome, showing America as the stepping stone for Eastern Polynesians into the Pacific.

Here is a summary of blood/genetic information that confirms the link between Japan/Taiwan, America and Polynesia;

In Peter Bellwoods book Mans Conquest of the Pacific he cites a study showing that Polynesians and NW Coastal Indians have very similar blood. They both have No B, high A, high M, high R2 & moderate Fya. The study showed Polynesians have no blood similarities to S.E. Asians or Melanesians.
S.W. Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7 “The following genes set them apart: Polynesians lack HLA-B27 , wheras it is common amongst Melanesians. HLA-Bw48 is commonly found in Polynesian populations, but occurs only sporadically in Melanesia. The only other known population with an appreciable frequency of HLA-Bw48 is that of the North American Indians or more specifically the Tlingit. In Polynesia Bw48 co-occurs with A11, – suggesting a variation since Polynesians departed from the Canadian coast.
Theodore G Schurr and colleagues(1990) ‘Both the North American Pima and the Central American Maya have high frequencies of the Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation containing the rare Asian RFLP Hine II morph 6 in conjunction with an Asian-specific 9 based pair deletion.’ It appears that both the Pima and the Maya are genetically very close to the Polynesians.
Katsushi Tokunaga and colleagues. ‘Genetic link between Asians and Native Americans: Evidence from HLA genes and haplotypes’ in Human Immunology 62 1001-1008 (2001). HLA24-Cw8-B48, A24-Cw10-B60 and A24-Cw9-B61 were all commonly observed in Taiwan indigenous populations, Tibetans, Thais, Japanese, Orochon in North East China, Buryat, Man,Yakut, Inuit, Tlingit, Pima, Maya and Maori.’ Harihara and colleagues (1992) noted: When observing the ‘Frequency of a 9bp deletion in the mitochrondrial DNA among Asian populations’. It appears that the Maori & Cook Islanders had ancestors from the Shizuoka prefecture of Japan.”
Fideas E, Leon S, and colleagues. ‘HLA Trans Pacific contacts’(1995) notes that; ‘a tribe living near the Pacific Colombian coast named the Noanama/Wanana, are clustered genetically closer to Japanese people than to other American natives.Novick and colleagues concur with this.’
The Easter Islanders are paleolithic Caucasians from America – as are the Basques (This could be the green in the above chart - showing a dispersal of Europeans from America, not Africa.)
In 1972 Professor Jean Dausset conducted a study of the Caucasian blue/green eyed, red heads of Easter Island, who are in fact a significant part of the Polynesian story. He found them to have an ancient strain of Caucasian blood, which can also be found in the Basques of Spain, characterised by A29 and B12. The analyses revealed that 39% of unrelated Basques and 37% of the Easter Islanders were carriers of the HLA gene B12. These were the highest and second highest proportions tested throughout the world. The figures for A29 were similar. The Easter Islanders, with 37%, had the highest proportion in the world, while the Basques were second with 24%. The most remarkable thing was; that the two genes were found as a haplotype (combined genetic markers) in 11% of Easter islanders and 7.9% of the Basques. No other people in the world had remotely comparable figures.” In fact, from the above tests, the Easter Islanders appear to be of a more pure ancient Caucasian racial stock than the Basques!
Yes America WAS the stepping stone of Polynesians into the Pacific. This is the trail of Haplogroup B on the West coast of America which arrived 6-8,000 years ago, but in Polynesia its arrival was only 2,200 years ago. Chronology alone suggests the direction of colonisation.

These genetic studies have shown a close genetic connection between the Tlingit and the Maori rather than a close connection between the Haida and the Hawaiians. This is most likely because the Tlingit are more isolated than the Haida and have remained as a more pure form of the original inhabitants who lived along the Canadian coastline, wheras the Haida have had contact with a greater amount of tribes from a variety of sources. They include Japanese, Ainu and Chinese fishermen who have travelled via the Kuroshio Current across the North Pacific; the Salish from the mainland; and some Pan Polar cultures such as the Reindeer people from Siberia. Similarly, the Maori rather than present day Hawaiians appear to be a genetically purer sample of the original Hawaiians. The Maoris being isolated in Aoteroa for 1,000 years has ensured a minimal genetic admixture, wheras Hawaii experienced some back migration from Tahiti, Samoa and Tonga because of its social position as the cultural centre of Polynesia.

Furthermore New Zealand can be seen as a time capsule, preserving many aspects of how Polynesia was 1000 years ago. For example The outrigger canoe was unknown in New Zealand. Pigs and chickens were also absent, but American plants such as the sweet potato, gourd and paper mulberry were present. This suggests that 1,000 years ago, central Polynesia was more greatly influenced by the Caucasian tribes of South America than they were by Melanesians.

Kwakiutl from Bella Bella       Chief Terriieroo, Tahiti      Chijako, Pima                 Kaviu, Pima                                .

These pictures help put a face to the original Polynesians and the genetically related Pima.

Chief Neli, Kioa, 1965, photo L Marsh

 

Maori tradition describes their arrival in a great fleet of canoes and the majority of Maoris today can trace their ancestry back to individual canoes. They were; the Maamari, Ngaatoki, Maahuuhuu, Aotea,

Te Arawa, Tainui, Kurahaupoo, Takitimu, Tohora, Horouata, Tokomaru, and Maataatua. Although legends do persist that there were pockets of short dark and tall white Manahune or 'spiritless' people already existing on the island. One particular tribe - the Waitaha (song of the stone) from the northern end of the South Island are one of the surviving tribes of an earlier Caucasian migration most likely connected to the stonemasons of South America and were most likely descended from the people who built the first stone walls on Rapa Nui around 400AD. Unfortunately these people were a peace loving people, hence their exodus from a warring South America. Due to their unwillingness to fight, their numbers were easily decimated by the Maori. Other archaeological evidence suggests that there was a significant population of people in New Zealand from an even earlier migration prior to the Taupo eruption. Most of these people would have been killed by the massive ash deposits across the North Island.

Wairaki Maori showing distinctivly caucasian features -

from; Martin doutres book Ancient Celtic NZ

Despite all this, genetic evidence as well as Maori history quite clearly shows that the majority of Maori ancestors were originally from Hawaii, but not necessarily as a direct voyage. Their arrival was from interim islands in French Polynesia, such as Ra'iatea and Ra'rotonga. On these islands, they spent a number of generations and mixed with Melanesians from the West and Caucasians from the East to varying degrees. Each island having it's own unique mix. As a result, each of these canoes had a slight racial variation, some darker with curly hair, some lighter with reddish hair. Today the result of their journey across the Pacific can be seen in variations in the appearance and beliefs between the following tribes of New Zealand.


Canoe; Maamari
Chief; Ruuaanui
Arrived; Hokianga
Tribes; Ngapuhi, Te Rarawa, te Aupoouri, Ngati Kahu
 
Canoe; Ngaatoki
Chief; Nukutawhiti
Arrived; Hokianga
Tribes; Ngapuhi
 
Canoe; Maahuuhuu
Chief; Rongomai
Arrived; Kaipara
Tribes; Ngati Whatua
 
Canoe; Tainui
Chief; Hoturoa
Arrived; Kawhia
Tribes; Waikato, Ngati Maniapoto, Ngati Haua, Ngati Maru, Ngati Paoa, Ngati Raukawa, Ngati Toa, Ngaitai
 
Canoe; Te Arawa
Chief; Tamatekapua
Arrived; Maketu
Tribes; Te Arawa, Ngati Tuwharetoa
 
Canoe; Tokomaru
Chief; Whata
Arrived; Mohakatino River
Tribes; Ngati Tama, Ngati Mutunga, Ngati Raahiri, Manukorihi, Puketapu, Te Atiawa, Ngati Maru
 
Canoe; Aotea
Chief; Turi
Arrived; Aotea Harbour
Ngati Ruanui, Ngarauru, Atihau
 
Canoe; Kurahaupoo
Chief; Maungaroa and Ruatea
Arrived; Whangaroa
Tribes; Taranaki, Atihau, Ngati Apa, Rangitaane, Muaupoko
 
Canoe; Maataatua
Chief; Toroa
Arrived; Whakatane
Tribes; Ngati Awa, Tuhoe, Whakatohea, Whanau a Apanui
 
Canoe; Horouata
Chief; Pawa
Arrived; Waiapu River
Tribes; Ngati Porou
 
Canoe; Tohora
Chief; Paikea
Arrived; Ahuahu (Gt Mercury Island)
Tribes; Ngati Porou
 
Canoe; Takitimu
Chief; Tamatea
Arrived; Waiau River
Tribes; Rongowhakaata, Ngati Kahungunu, Ngaitahu.

Singers from Niue. It is no surprise to learn that their ancestors

are from Canada.

Baskets for sale, Niue, Not only are these people genetically related to the Pima, but

they even make baskets the same way.

More Complex Origins

It appears from genetic evidence (see link to American HLA's, James L Guthrie) that the origins of native Americans are extremely complicated. They are not the product of a single migration through The Bering Land Bridge as some people believe, but are the result of numerous migratory ocean voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific. This in turn has influenced the resultant population of people that we find in the Pacific. Cro Magnon man appears to have arrived in America from Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago, bringing with him a unique stone fluting technology along with the Caucasian Haplotype X cluster of genes common amongst the Algonquins and Athapaskans. Black African genes arrived in America 10,000 years ago, and are found amongst the people living along the lower Amazon; Indian genes arrived 3-4,500years ago and make up some of the population in Venezuela and Panama; Eastern Mediterranean and Greek genes also appear to have arrived in Central and South America 4,000years ago; Mayan/Austronesian genes are also found amongst the Greeks and Sicilians, especially amongst the females, showing that there was a great deal of trans-Atlantic trade going on during the Bronze Age. This, along with an influx of Asian genes along the Pacific coast meant that Central America, by its geographical nature was obviously a meeting place for cultures from both the East and the West. Hence we have groups such as the Picts of Scotland covering themselves with Tattoos, an ancient Asian custom. The Etruscans of Italy were also a mix of Asian and Caucasian, reflected in their Bronze ware having Asian characteristics. It seems logical to assume that this blending of maritime cultures happened in a maritime environment where Asian and European cultures are known to have met, such as the Caribbean and Central America. There is another possibility and that is; Austronesians once commanded a global trade network which extended into the Mediterranean as well as across to the Caribbean. Austronesians in Madascar could be one relic population of this trade route. Only more detailed genetic studies will help uncover the connection between Etruscans and Asians, and how the Picts of Scotland learnt the art of Tattooing. It seems that the division between Europe and Asia may have been a little more blurred in the past.

From the genetic evidence, it appears that trans Atlantic crossings have been going on for a long time - the reddish/brown haired, green eyed Auracanians of coastal Chile and Peru not only have some 4-6,000 year old Indonesian genes in them (James L Guthrie), but they also have 12-18,000 year old Caucasian genes forming the basal layer of their complex genetic history. Aztec history confirms that Native Americans in ancient times were Caucasian. This period in history was called; "The Age of the Blonde Haired Bearded Giants". It was these people who made up the majority of Eurasian and American populations at the time when the kingdom of Atlantis existed - the mother of many European and American cultures. This period of human history ended with a terrible natural catastrophe. Historical records indicate that an earthquake destroyed an island in the Mid Atlantic(Atlantis) and an associated tsunami swept through the Caribbean (Anasazi legend) and down the Mediterranean(destroying the Greek army)11,500 years ago and ended this "Golden Age".

After the Golden Age - according to Aztec/Toltec history, 7,590BC was the beginning of “Age of the Red Haired People." They enslaved the remnant populations of the blonde haired giants, using them to build their megalithic monuments. Cro Magnon man according to the Mayan 'Popul Voh' was very trusting and gullible. He was not familiar with the lies and trickery of this new breed of humans and was easily manipulated. The Mayan 'Popul Voh' is packed full terrible deeds done to these peacable giants.

In Europe, the children's story of Jack and the bean stalk quite likely goes back to this time after Atlantis where the surviving giants of the 'Golden Age' possessed the knowledge of gold production, but the new breed of humans (the Red Heads) represented by Jack and his mother did not want giants around anymore, nor did they merely just want the giants stash of golden eggs, they wanted the technology of gold production, represented by the goose that laid the golden eggs, Jack succeeded in obtaining the 'technology of Gold production and then killed the giant. It is also interesting to note that giants in many fairy stories are depicted as being naive or easily tricked.

According to Aztec/Toltec legend, 5,500 years ago, began "The age of the Black Haired People". Geneticists have identified that the  East Asian migration into America began ~6,000 years ago. 500 years before American legends say it happened. This is an acceptable time period for the founder populations to gather momentum. It is interesting to note that Sumerian legends also state that the Age of the Black haired people in the Mediterranean began about 5,500 years ago. Obviously there was a catastrophe on a global scale and random chance favoured the Black Haired people.This is most likely the beginning of Austronesians crossing the Pacific via the Kuroshio current.

Further proof that Native Americans prior to this time were essentially Caucasian is the 7-9000 year old red haired mummies that have been found in Nevada. Kennwick man, a Native American was also Caucasian, but not form Europe.

The common origin of both European and American culture from the ancient civilization of Atlantis makes total sense when we start looking at the cultural similarities. Many books have been written about the similarities between Mayan and Egyptian science, especially in the realms of Astronomy, calender and mathematics. Mayans even share the same war god as many European tribes; Votan in Mayan legends and Woden in Viking legends, (Votan and Woden is deemed to be linguistically the same).

One may ask; why is there not a greater degree of caucasian racial types evident in America today?

This can easily be explained through the interaction between dominant and recessive genes.

Once Asians began interbreeding with the Native Americans, the recessive genes of red hair and blue eyes quickly dissappeared. Despite this, there is still some evidence of this earlier racial type in some Native Americans.The Araucano appear to be one of the most significant remnant populations (300,000 in Chile) of this previous age of Red Heads in America . Elsewhere, native Americans have a lesser degree of this Caucasian heritage, although many Native North Americans are tall with long narrow skulls and wiry features - characteristic features of these early Caucasians. Most native Americans are blood group O (European) and not B(Asian). The Araucano are also 20% Rhesus negative, putting them up there with the Irish and the Basques as being the most closely related to the original Europeans. (Cro Magnon man was blood group O-  and Rhesus negative). Not only is Rhesus negative a recessive gene, but blonde hair, red hair and blue eyes are all recessive genes and any interbreeding with dominant brown eyed/black haired individuals of blood group B, will lead to the dissappearance of these visual characteristics. Not only this, but due to isolation of these original Caucasians, they became vulnerable to disease brought in from outside America. This process was observed in the Pacific by the early explorers. First accounts of Tahiti indicated that over ten percent of the Population was Caucasian, but when another ship arrived 8 months later, most of these Native Caucasians had already succumbed to disease brought by the earlier European ship. Despite this, Polynesians placed these people in high esteem and they were often found in positions of power within Polynesian society. The practice of the bride withdrawing to a darkened hut or cave for weeks before her wedding day was to show she had some of this ancient royal blood and exemplifies the position these white people held in society. Ancient Caucasian genes have been lost in the Pacific and America, not through war or genocide, but through natural processes where the genetically stronger individuals become the dominant population.

Thor Heyerdahls research uncovered a burial chamber that contained what is now known as 'The Paracas Mummies'. To his surprise, they had red and blonde wavy hair, with long skulls. These people conducted extensive ocean voyages off  South and Central America on Balsa Rafts between 300 BC and 400 AD. Their culture was undoubtedly South American in every way, but they were also a type of Caucasian. The Araucano would have been related to this group.There is also a high probability that the red haired long ears of Easter Island, represented by the Moai statues, are also from a similar gene pool as the Araucanians who according to James L. Guthrie, possess both Caucasian and Indonesian genes. The practice of elongating ears was common practice by mariners in the Maldives and Borneo and could have been a custom brought to America and the Pacific by people sporting Indonesian genes. More research on this early Austronesian long ear phenomenon is sure to uncover some interesting facts.

 

Shoshone, North America, Tolai mask, Bismarck archepelago and Moai, Rapa nui, depicting a skull shape that quite possibility originated amongst the native Caucasians of America.

Caucasians in the Pacific

When the first explorers arrived in the Pacific they were surprised to see a significant number of Caucasians amongst the natives. Captain Samuel Wallis, in the Dolphin, the first ship to stop at Tahiti had George Robertson asthe ships master. He took a keen interest in the polynesians and made numerous notes on the people. ...the Mustees are near ten times as numerous as the whitest sort (ie; 10% of the population was white). .... there was two of the handsomest young ladys that I ever saw upon the island. one in particular was fully as fair and had a good features as the generality of women in England. Although the white people were heavily outnumbered, they were of the chiefly class and the copper coloured/red people were their servants, ... whereby the the red people did the paddling for the white people".

Relics of past populations of Caucasians in the Pacific do still exist such as in Easter Island, Raiatea, New Zealand, Missima Island and the blonde haired Tolai of New Guinea, but in most areas, the interaction between dominant and recessive genes from either side of the Pacific, has masked the interesting and complicated history of the Polynesians.

The isolation of these Pacific cultures on the one hand has preserved many cultural traits from an earlier age long since forgotten on the mainland. On the other hand, isolation and regeneration of population bases from small founding colonies has meant that many morphological features (red hair and blue eyes) and technological traits(use of metals) have been lost. The result is a variety of cultures that in some ways are unique, but other traits persist that are reminders of the culture and genetic makeup of the people that went before them.

Certain Polynesian people such as the Easter Islanders have a unique appearance to other Polynesians. They have red and blonde hair, green and blue eyes, they are tall with elongated Caucasian skulls, high foreheads and wiry features. Their family genealogy does not suggest that their society was in any way, remotely influenced by wayward sailors. In fact their worship of Megalithic ancestral idols (that began being built around the 11th Century) was associated with sun worship, the Birdman culture and the Rapa (Harrapan) script. These traits seem to come from a time long since forgotten in other parts of the world. Easter Island culture was a veritable time capsule hidden on a remote island in the Pacific known as Te Pito O Te Kainga - meaning; 'The end of the land'.

Despite this, some people believe that shipwrecked Portuguese sailors invented this ancient culture and script (viz; Robert Langdon and 'The Lost Caravel). Personally I cannot see how the worship of large stone idols and the birdman religion could ever come from a people indoctrinated with the Catholic faith, no matter how distorted their view of Catholicism was.

The following is an excerpt from Robert Langdon's book entitled; ‘The Lost Caravel Re-explored' where due to his misunderstanding of ancient history, believed that oceanic voyaging began with people like Columbus and Magellan. He decided that the only possible explanation for Caucasians in the Pacific was that a Portuguese ship must have been responsible. He even searched through the records to put a name to the ship that may have been responsible for bringing Caucasian genes into the Pacific. He chose the ship San Lesmes, whose crew came from Madrid, Cordoba and South America, hardly a shipload of pure Basques, the genes that the Easter Islander genes are most similar to.

The San Lesmes was shipwrecked not on Easter Island, but on an isolated atoll towards the eastern end of the Tuamotus over 1,000 miles away!

In 1929 a French survey team on the Mouette was directed to a wreck site on the northern tip of the atoll by the local chief, who informed them that a white man's ship had run aground on the island many generations ago, and all of its crew had been killed and eaten by the local people. All that was left were four cannons lying in shallow water, partly embedded in coral. These were found to be the cannons of the San Lesmes. How on earth can a group of dead men served up for supper have influenced Pacific history? As this was the period of Spanish conquest of the Americas, I find it very hard to believe that even if some of these men did survive, that their Spanish egos would have allowed them to give up their language, culture and faith to wholeheartedly embrace Polynesian culture, taking on positions in the Royal families as high chiefs - where most of the Caucasian genes can be found. Such chiefly families memorise their family genealogy right back to their arrival in Polynesia and no mention of shipwrecked European sailors appear in any of these genealogies. Surely someone with the power to break through the traditions of the ancient hereditary lineage that binds Polynesian society together would have imparted at least a little of their Portuguese language, culture and Catholic faith to their new culture. Robert Langdon's circumstantial evidence ignores the fact that not a single Portuguese word can be found in the Polynesian language. Not one skeric of evidence suggests that Portuguese culture had anything to do with the development of Polynesian society. Not only this, but Maoris arrived in New Zealand over 200 years before the San Lesmes was wrecked. How can the Caucasian features of some tribes be explained?

It is dissapointing to see intelligent people hoodwinked into believing such a preposterous story.

It is an insult to Polynesian society to suggest that it's development had anything to do with a few wretched shipwrecked sailors. Caucasians in the Pacific have much deeper more ancient origins. 

Robert Langdon continued with his preposterous concoction. He believed that these shipwrecked sailors went on quests to other islands where Caucasian enclaves have been found. Once again, they failed to impart anything that could be recognised as Portuguese culture. Instead all the islands where he believes they imparted their genes to, coincidentally possessed a strong sun worshipping culture. These islands are Ra'iatea (Sun people white), Ra'ivavae (Sun, in memory of), Ra'rotonga (Sun in the south) and Rapa'nui (Rapa, Big). It seems peculiar to me that these wayward Spaniards cast off their Catholic faith to begin worshipping Ra the sun god and then even to have islands affectionately named after their white skins and their new god. Robert Langdon has taken the idea expressed in 'Lord of the Flies' and run with it.

If we believe Robert Langdon's story, these Spaniards or their children eventually progressed to Easter island. They began a complex society where they built monuments in their own likeness and changed their Latin style of writing into a complex script similar to the Indus Harrapan script, and began worshipping megalithic idols and having human sacrifices - a similar practice was seen in the Olmec culture of Central America. Why would they have done this? It makes no sense at all. In fact the Caucasian looking Moai began to be built 400 years before any Spaniard came near the Pacific, let alone crossed the Atlantic for falling off the edge of the world. So we ask the question again – who were these Caucasians making red haired megalithic statues in their own likeness in the middle of the Pacific?

Robert Langdon unwittingly provides the answer in the following excerpt from his book;

“Professor Jean Dausset, one of the co-discoverers of the HLA system, did a study of the Easter Islanders. in 1972 (published in Copenhagen in 1973 in a 778-page volume entitled Histocompatibility Testing,1972 ).

Professor Dausset and his colleagues took particular pains to ensure that the islanders they examined were of pure Easter Island descent. ‘We aimed', they said in a report on their work, ‘a selection of individuals where no known foreign admixture had taken place, even from other Polynesian islands.' They explained that their work was based on genealogies compiled by father Sebastian Englert, a priest who lived on Easter Island for 35 years until just before his death in 1969. They also used data assembled by previous biological investigators and interviewed several elderly islanders about foreign admixture on the island. However, during their investigations some islanders who had been included as ‘pure' natives in previous studies were said to be members of families where admixture from other islands and even Europeans, had taken place. All these individuals were therefore excluded, ‘as was done consistently whenever doubts were raised.'

Forty nine islanders of reputedly pure descent were blood tested. To their surprise the A29,B12 haplotype was common amongst these people, genes that are characteristic of early European Caucasians. In Basque country, another enclave of ancient European genes, tests were also carried out and 144 pure Basques agreed to take part in the tests. All were residents of the village of Macaye in the heart of the French Pyrenees. The analyses revealed that 39% of unrelated Basques and 37% of the Easter Islanders were carriers of the HLA gene B12. These were the highest and second highest proportions tested throughout the world. The figures for A29 were similar. The Easter Islanders, with 37%, had the highest proportion in the world, while the Basques were second with 24%. The most remarkable thing was; that the two genes were found as a haplotype (combined genetic markers) in 11% of Easter islanders and 7.9% of the Basques. No other people in the world had remotely comparable figures."

In fact the Easter Islanders appeared to be of a more pure Caucasian racial stock than the Basques! Hardly the gene pool expected from the motley crew of the San Lesmes.

Their isolation in South America and then the Pacific has ensured their racial purity through time.

A great deal of work has been done studying the Basques and many scientists have come to the conclusion that the Basques have the purest Caucasian genes, yet their genes show that they were not in Europe between 13,000 and 6,000 years ago. Their absence during this period shielded them from the Indo-European interbreeding that occured amongst the Central European tribes.

My belief is that these people were Native Americans albeit Caucasian Native Americans.

The Easter Islanders are a fragment of this ancient civilization who according to the Rongo Rongo scripts (see Appendix), departed from Puna Island, Peru.

 

Further studies will need to be undertaken to identify whether the Easter Island genes come from the original Cro Magnon man that entered America from Spain (Clovis/Solutrean), or whether the South American Caucasians (as seen in the red haired Paracas mummies) were from other ancient mariners associated with the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Hittites, Sumerians, the people of Ur or Harrappa?

The other possibility is that they are a combination of both Ancient Native American Caucasians and Bronze age Caucasians, which is what the Rongo Rongo decipherment (see Appendix) seems to indicate.

Having said this, we must remember that Egyptians relate their history back to Atlantis, therefore their genes were also from a branch of the Native American Caucasians.

As all of the above people were originally from Atlantis, their genes would originally have been of the same racial stock as the Basques. The time of separation is the question that needs to be answered.

Papyrus rafts and the Rapa script suggest that they were from the Indus/Persian gulf region between 3-5,000 years ago, conversly, their racial purity suggests they were from a region isolated from Indo-European mixing.

South America and the Caribbean are the two most likely areas where these people remained isolated from insurgent populations.

The Rongo Rongo tablets speak of ancient people from Tulapin or Turtle Island, now the Grand Bahama banks, and the Children of the Sun - from Tiahuanaco/Lake Titicaca.

You may want to read the Appendix on Rongo Rongo script. It is quite clear in its description of the slow and persistent persecution of these Caucasian groups in South America, leading to an Exodus into the Pacific led by Con tiki Viracocha.

The following is an edited down version of a paper that can be found in the links at the end of the website. Although it does not consider America as part of the story, it does mention the connection between the North African and the North American Na Dene language. It also mentions that the Sahara started to dry out 18,000 years ago, which could have precipitated an exodus, but then it mentions that the migration to Iberia only occurred between 6,000 and 4,500BC. Did these people remain huddled in a tent in the mid Sahara for 10,000 years or were they in America for this time? The seafaring prowess of the descendants of these people (Celts, Phoenicians and Vikings) suggest that major oceanic voyages featured highly in their history, not camel herding. Other genetic papers confirm that these people appear to have been in genetic isolation for at least 7,000 years.

HLA genes in Arabic-speaking Moroccans:

close relatedness to Berbers and Iberians

E. Go´mez-Casado, J. Mart¦´nez-Laso, A. Garc¦´a-Go´mez, P. del Moral, L. Allende.

C. Silvera-Redondo, J. Longas   M. Gonza´lez-Hevilla, M. Kandil, J. Zamora, A. Arnaiz-Villena

 

Abstract: The gene profile of Arabic-speaking Moroccans has been compared with those of other Mediterranean populations in order to provide additional information about the history of their origins. Our HLA data suggest that most Moroccans are of a Berber ( Imazighen ) origin and that

Arabs who invaded North Africa and Spain in the 7th century A.D. did not substantially contributed to the gene pool; however, they imposed their advanced culture and their religion. Present-day Egyptians are also related to Moroccan Berbers and this supports an ancient Saharan origin for part of

the present-day Mediterraneans, particularly for the Arabic-speaking ones (also Algerians) and also for the older substratum of Mediterranean people.

 

Historical background and discussion

An Iberomarussian culture was established in North Africa before 11000 B.C. The Berber language was spoken across North Africa from the Canary Islands (Guanche) to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt and

from the Mediterranean coast to Mali and Niger, probably reflecting the first populations kinship. Lybic inscriptions are the remains of paleo-Berber language. The break of Berber and the old Egyptian language remains to be explained, but it may be due to the fact that old Egyptian is still clearly undeciphered, since

every scholar has currently relied on their own transliteration system. In summary, a potentially large population who had a generic linguistic and possibly a genetic identity may have existed across

the Sahara Desert of North Africa and into the Atlantic; it is postulated that these people were forced to emigrate in times of arid weather fluctuations which occurred in the last 18000 years and may have

definitively emigrated towards the Northern Coast of Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Islands and eastwards to the Nile when desert became widespread and difficult to inhabit. Numidic Kings ruled a series of organized states which extended from Tunisia to the Canary Islands when Phoenicians arrived to North Africa and set up coastal cities like Cartago by 900 B.C., a treaty with indigenous Numids permission was

signed.

Romans ruled North Africa since 50 A.D. and by 700 A.D., Muslims coming from the Arabian Peninsula (as far as Yemen) and from Middle East invaded North Africa, recruited a substantial Berber

army and also occupied Spain until 1492 A.D. The number of eastern newcomers was very low in comparison with the number of established Berbers; however, Islamization was particularly

strong and Arabic is currently spoken in many areas along the southern Mediterranean coast.

Indeed, the present study confirms that a majority of presentday North Africans from Morocco (El Jadida) and Algerians are close to Berbers according to the genetic distances, and also to Iberians (Spaniards, Portuguese and Basques). Eastern and other Mediterraneans show bigger genetic distances to Moroccans, including Arabs from the Arabian peninsula.

Greeks are also confirmed as outliers. (This suggests the existence of genetically different Caucasians emanating from the Caspian and Black Seas).

Moroccans cluster together with; western Europeans (Basque, Irish, Welsh, Armoricans - from Brittany) and African Mediterraneans (Berbers, Algerians and Iberians) and some Middle-East Mediterraneans (Palestinians, Jews and Lebanese).

Basques show close genetic relationship to Berbers and also share the paleo-North African haplotype A30-B18-DR3.

Berbers share with other Iberians; A2-B7-DR15 and A33-B14-DR1 Basque, Iberian, Lybic inscriptions and Berber languages are all related and have been included in the Na-Dene group of languages.

This group of languages were widely spoken over a wide area of North Africa, North America and parts of Eurasia but were flooded by languages of foreign populations (Eurasiatic languages) about 8000–6000 B.C.

Nowadays, Eurasiatic human isolates speaking Na-Dene languages remain in the Basque Country, North Africa (Berbers), North Caucasus, North Pakistan (at Karakoram, Burushaski) and Yenisei River

(Kets); Athabascans, Navajo and Apache Indians in America also speak these languages. Dead languages belonging to this group are: Iberian, Etruscan and Minoan among others.

Thus, the dating of a genetically important Berber migration to Iberia and other northern, eastern, and western lands approximates to after 10000 B.C. and most likely to after 6000 B.C. when hyperarid

conditions were well established in the Sahara. This is supported by other genetic markers and other authors.

Berbers, Egyptians, Turks, Albanians and Iranians HLA profiles show that they also are closely related. This is concordant with the recorded historical data suggesting that part of the first Egyptian

predynastic people come from the once fertile Sahara region, where the Berber language was (and still is) spoken. Southern Sahara pottery and artifacts (8000 B.C.) were precursors of the first predynastic

Nile cultures like Khartoum and El-Badari and also of southern Iberia cultures. It was postulated that Saharan hyperarid conditions established between 6000 and 4500 B.C. forced this ancient

Berber-speaking people to emigrate northwards (Iberians), westwards (Canary Island - Guanches) and eastwards (Egyptians). This is supported by genetic, linguistic and geological data. Finally, it is found that other present-day Mediterraneans (Albanians, Kurds, Turks and Iranians) are related and may in part come from this primitive Saharan stock".

 

This paper confirms that there is a genetic connection between the Egyptians, Berbers and Basques and it also infers that the Na Dene language was a common link amongst these people. The Gaelic language is also believed to be a Europeanisation of the Na Dene language, as many words as well as the sentence structure is the same in both languages. This stands to reason as the Welsh and Irish are genetic blood brothers of the Na Dene speaking Basque.

As Egyptians relate their cultural origins to Atlantis, it could also be inferred that Berber/Basque genes and the Na Dene language both come from the ancient civilization associated with Atlantis which was not just an island in the mid Atlantic, but was a group of 10 kingdoms stretching across North Africa to Egypt and across the Atlantic to Central, South and North America. No one survived on the island of Atlantis and it is unlikely that many people survived who were living in coastal cities along The Atlantic and Mediterranian coastlines. According to Egyptian history relayed by Plato, the people living along the Nile were the main surviving group (relavent to Egyptians). People in America away from the coastline would have also survived. This was the beginning of the divergence between the Western and Eastern side of the Atlantic, although as mentioned in other parts of this website, trade contact was maintained right up to the Destruction of Carthage by the Romans in 146BC. Following this, America was forgotten for nearly 1700years when, at the end of the Dark Ages, people began sifting through ancient maps in the few surviving libraries in Spain, Portugal and Turkey. This resulted in an accurate 6,000 year old map of the Antarctic being placed on a map of the world without the Pacific Ocean, thus making the Antarctic appear much bigger and so was named "The Great Southern Land". This confused Captain Cook. Other maps confused the coastline of China with maps of the American coastline, with the Island of Taiwan off the American coast. This led to Columbus's confusion, thinking he had arrived in India. As a result of this mistake, Native Americans were called 'Red Indians'.