The Pacific Ocean is bounded by America on its eastern side, stretching from 70degrees North to 55 degrees south. As trade winds and equatorial ocean currents travel in a westerly direction, it would be foolish to assume that America did not play a part in the populating of the Pacific. Therefore, to ascertain the complexities of human migration in the Pacific region, we need to understand fully how America was populated.
It appears that there have been some gross inaccuracies and misunderstandings that have led scientists to accept an oversimplified model of human entry into America via the Bering land bridge during the height of the last ice age. No consideration to the possibility that ocean crossings played a significant part in the populating of the Americas, has been given. Recent studies of the tool kits of the first Americans suggest an entry from Spain and not from Siberia. Not only this, but paleolithic Caucasian genes appear to form the basal layer of the genetic makeup of many native Americans, helping to confirm a trans-Atlantic entry into Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. Recent discoveries of three 13,000 year old Cro magnon man skeletons in an underwater cave in the Bahamas suggests that the above is true and correct.
Almost all archaeology to date has been based on the discovery of sites that are above sea level. Sea levels rose to present day levels about 6,000 years ago, therefore there has to be a great deal hidden underwater prior to this event, distorting the picture of early habitation of our planet. Factors that determined human settlement 20,000 years ago were much the same as they are today, as a result the preferred sites for towns and cities would have been on the coast. The sea provided unhindered passage to other towns for trade (no mountains, canyons, powerful river currents, jungles, deserts or hostile tribes to interfere with ones passage). Not only that, but boats were the trucks of the olden days, transporting large cargoes for trade.
The availability and choice of food is also more diverse along a coastline, as both land and marine produce can be obtained. Temperatures are less extreme and the likelihood of life giving rain is also much greater. Therefore almost all ancient towns of any consequence would have been by the sea and so, the great majority of towns and cities prior to 6,000 years ago are all underwater from sea level rises since the last ice age.
Many megalithic monuments around the world are made from rocks that have been transported hundreds of kilometres away from their source, suggesting that large sailing boats were in use 6,000 years ago and possibly as early as 18,000 years ago. Boats were one of the earliest forms of communal transport invented by man, seaworthy boats would have expanded mans horizons immeasurably. As a result of him using the 'highways of the sea', his desire to determine where he was going, fueled a revolution in astronomy, mathematics, trigonometry and ultimately world trade. The Polar meltdown between 7,000 and 5,500 years ago talked about later in this chapter would not only have produced a rapid rise in sea level, but also, the iso static rebound would have caused subsidence of weak crustal areas such as the mid Atlantic Ridge, causing earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis, resulting in the devastation of coastal towns and the decimation of all seafaring nations around the world. Not only did it destroy the people of this time, but also much of the knowledge which they possessed.
This was not the only catastrophic rise in sea level that early man has had to deal with, there were others - 14,000, 11,600, 8,200 and 6,000 years ago. It was after these events that we find the survivors taking an interest in swamp agriculture around lakes and on highland plateaus without fear of inundation. Such areas that were chosen were , Lake Chad, Lake Titicaca, New Guinea Highlands, Highlands of Luzon, the Nile, the Tigris, the Indus, the Upper Amazon, the Mississippi, the Mekong, the Yangtze and so on. With these few survivors, they would have retained only the bare essentials and much of the old technology was lost or forgotten. It appears that archaeologists may have mistaken this regrouping of man after the final floods as the beginning of agriculture and civilization. Discoveries of cities around India, Yonaguni and an underwater city in 700m of water off Cuba indicate that archaeologists have grossly misunderstood their findings and have merely scratched the surface of human prehistory.
Dr Muck, an archaeologist, describes archeological sites in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Southern Carolina, dating back 15,000-18,000 years which demonstrate that the ocean-going Solutreans may have first entered America by sailing across the Atlantic.
The notion that Clovis originated in or spread throughout North America from a point of origin in the Northern Plains (within an ice-free corridor between the continental glaciers) is not supported by the distribution of finds. Clovis may actually have dispersed into North and South America from the Caribbean and Central America, much of which is now submerged, making it difficult to ascertain the exact time of entry into America.
caves off Yucatan yield three old skeletons—remains date
to 13,000 years ago.
by Dr. Greg Little
September 10, 2004
"At the international "Early Man in America Seminar" in Mexico City on September 9, 2004, an archaeological team from Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History reported one of the most significant finds ever made in American archaeological history. Three well-preserved skeletons were discovered in underwater caves off the Caribbean coast of Yucatan during dives during 2001 and 2002. The skeletons were found in 65-foot-deep water. The University of California in Riverside carbon-dated charcoal samples found with one of the skeletons to over 13,000 calendar years ago—11,000 B.C. The find represents the oldest carbon date associated with any human bone remains found in the Americas. Mexican archaeologist Arturo Gonzalez led the dive team.
Gonzalez noted that during the last Ice Age, sea levels were much lower, but as we reported in our book and video documentary, "The ARE's Search for Atlantis," archaeologists from Florida State University's Underwater Archaeology Department (FSU) found that in the area "of the Bahamas in 10,500 B.C., the water levels were about 100 feet lower than today. But areas of human occupation on these ancient shores tend to cluster at depths around the 45-foot level."
The new discovery of Yucatan remains dated to 11,000 B.C. comes as we are completing the video documentary, "The Yucatan Hall of Records," scheduled for release at the ARE's Annual Ancient Mysteries Conference. The discovery has been incorporated into the video and confirms several statements made by Andrew Collins, which were made during a videotaped interview for the documentary. Collins, author of the best selling, "Gateway to Atlantis," tells the story of Votan, the Guatemalan highlands version of Itzamna. In both the stories of Itzamna and Votan, related in Maya codices, the founder of the Maya culture was said to have come from an island in the east. Collins stated that substantial research has shown that Votan's origin was definitely Cuba. Both Itzamna and Votan carried written records with them. According to Collins, Votan landed on the shores of the Yucatan coast and gradually moved north. We believe that Cerritos Island, which we visited in August 2004, may have been the initial landing site of Iltar/Itzamna/Votan."
The Clovis - Solutrean connection
Dr. Stanford an archaeologist of the highest caliber, turned away from the Bering route and looked elsewhere for the first migration. His thinking evolved over three decades. In the '60s Stanford, like most of his colleagues, believed that Clovis came from Asia. It wasn't until the '70s that he began to believe that Clovis was a New World development and that evidence of pre-Clovis would be found in the Arctic. "But I wasn't seeing evidence," he recalls, "and after a while it started not to make sense. Everything I found in Alaska that was fluted was post-Clovis in age." There was no technology he considered pre-Clovis. He hoped at the time that once Siberia was opened up to Western scientists we would find the missing evidence. But the end of the Cold War didn't provide the solution for Stanford and his co-theorist, lithics expert Bruce Bradley. Stanford and Dr. Bradley independently looked at the evidence and arrived at the same conclusion. They inspected late-Pleistocene sites and scoured museum collections in Siberia, Russia, and northern China, seeking pre-Clovis technology. Instead, what they found was a totally different method of making tools and weapons.
The Clovis fluted point is knapped from stone, flaked on both sides (bifacial) and shaped into a beautiful thin, flat killing instrument; the base is thinned and relieved into a concave recess so that the point can be securely hafted onto a foreshaft or shaft. The Asian upper-Paleolithic weapons that Stanford and Bradley found, however, were made using a microblade technology, where tiny blades struck from wedge-shaped cores of stone were inset into long, narrow rods of bone, antler, or ivory. When Far East craftsmen tried to make bifacial tools, the result was relatively crude implements (quite thick in cross section, compared with exquisitely thin Clovis points) and frequently bi-pointed.
Nowhere in Asia did Stanford and Bradley find the ancestor of the Clovis point. They reasoned that if the first immigrants were Asian, they must have brought with them their inset-microblade manufacturing process, in which case there must exist evidence of a transition to Clovis technology. So far, however, nothing resembling an intermediate form between inset microblades and a knapped biface has been found in North America.
Stuck at a dead end, Stanford and Bradley took up a fresh trail. The roots of Clovis, they reasoned, must lie in the Paleolithic Old World outside of Asia. They took up the search for a parent technology that specialized in making thin, flat bifacial projectile points, knives and other biface implements, and other artifacts of stone and bone similar to those of the Clovis culture. They found only one Paleolithic culture whose technology met their criteria, the Solutrean people. Named for the French town of Solutré, the culture spread across much of France and the Spanish Peninsula. They were highly efficient hunters. Full bellies gave them leisure time, which they used to decorate the walls of their caves with fabulous surrealistic paintings of bison and horses and ibex that continue to awe us today. They were carvers, too, for art's sake.
"They had the only upper-Paleolithic biface technology going in Western Europe," Stanford points out. They were the first to heat-treat flint, and the first to use pressure flaking--removing flakes by pressing with a hardwood or antler tool, rather than by striking with another stone. "In northern Spain, their technology produced biface projectile points with concave bases that are basally thinned," he notes, not bothering to say he could just as well be describing Clovis points. The pressure flakes Solutrean knappers removed are so long it's almost a fluting technique--"almost," he's careful to say, but not quite.
The parallels between Solutrean and Clovis flintknapping techniques seem endless. The core technology, "the way they were knocking off big blades and setting up their core platforms," he explains, "is very similar to the Clovis technique, if not identical." They perfected the outre passé --overshot--flaking technique later seen in Clovis, which removes a flake across the entire face of the tool from margin to margin. It's a complicated procedure, he emphasizes, that has to be set up and steps followed precisely in order to detach regular flakes predictably. The Solutreans set up platforms and followed the technique through to the end, exactly as we see in Clovis. "No one else in the world does that," Stanford insists. "There is very little in Clovis--in fact, nothing--that is not found in Solutrean technology," he declares.
Archaeologist Kenneth Tankersley of Kent State University seconds Stanford and Bradley's opinion: "There are only two places in the world and two times that this technology appears--Solutrean and Clovis."
On and on the similarities pile up. We find carved tablets in Clovis sites remarkably similar to Solutrean specimens. Both cultures cached toolstone and finished implements. Stanford and Bradley know of about 20 instances of caches at Solutrean sites; in North America, by comparison, according to Stanford, "we're up to about nine or ten." Just like Clovis knappers, Solutreans used flakes detached by outre passé to make scrapers and knives. Clovis bone projectile points bear an uncanny resemblance to ones made by Solutreans. When French archaeologists saw the cast of a wrench used by Clovis craftsmen at the Murray Springs site in Arizona to straighten spear shafts, they declared it remarkably similar to one found at a Solutrean site.
Proof that Solutreans were also mariners was in the discovery in 1992 of Le Cosquer cave near Marseilles by diver Henri Cosquer. Among the rock art figures are depictions of seals impaled by harpoons as well as flounder and halibut - deep-sea fish! Clearly Solutreans learned how to exploit marine resources, possibly in hide boats made from mammoth ribs. At some stage either by accident or on purpose, they caught the northern Equatorial current and favourable trade winds, to find themselves in the heart of a magnificent Archipelago of uninhabited islands. Here they flourished, discovering new plants, animals in abundance and minerals. These people have been called the Clovis hunters in America.
Dr Stanford and Dr Bradley point out the discoveries in genetics by researchers at Emory University and the Universities of Rome and Hamburg. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited exclusively from the mother, normally contains four markers called haplogroups, labeled A, B, C, and D. These four are shared by 95 percent of Native Americans. Recently, however, the genetics team identified a fifth haplogroup, called X, which is present in about 20,000 Native Americans and has also been found in several pre-Columbian populations. A most interesting fact is that haplogroup X is also present in European populations but absent from Asians. The geneticists' research suggests the marker appears to have arrived in the Americas 12,000 to 34,000 years ago, not from Asia, but from Europe.
As well as the Caucasian Marker X in North America, the Araucanians of Chile also have significant Paleolithic Caucasian genes in them, most likely arriving from Spain between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago. It is common for them to have curly reddish brown hair and green eyes.
The red haired Caucasian Paracas mummies of Peru is also proof that Caucasians were part of the indigenous culture of America. I also found that in 1892 the Easter Island scripts were deciphered by A.Carroll, M.A., M.D., but have been ignored. They are a detailed history of tribal conflict in South America, leading up to the exodus to Easter Island! They mention tribes from the ancient land of Tulapin (Turtle Island), the Eagle Clan and the Children of the sun or Ra. They were all Caucasians.
Genetic similarities between Europeans and American Indians
Archaeologists are just beginning to realize that to understand European prehistory, American prehistory must also be considered. The Solutreans of Spain are now believed to have crossed the Atlantic using the southern Equatorial current and entered the Caribbean and Central America between 18,000 and 12,000 years ago to become known as the Clovis hunters of America. Recent genetic findings suggest that the people now known as Gaelic speaking Celts (including Irish, Welsh, Scots, Basques and Berbers) are a remnant of a group of people who also left Spain between 1,8000 and 12,000 years ago and spent 6,000 years isolated from Europe before returning, bringing the Megalithic culture to coastal Europe.
Geneticist Prof Steve Jones, who recently published a book called Y - The Descent of Man, said;
"Genetics provided more reliable clues to the distant past than language did". He and colleagues at University College, London, have spent years creating a genetic map of the Y chromosome, which is passed by males from generation to generation. The results show that the Welsh are related to the Basques of northern Spain and southern France and to native Americans. He said: "There has been much less interbreeding in Wales than you might expect. Wales and Ireland have the most homogenous group of males of anywhere in the world, from the research that's been done so far".
He said; "The Y chromosome common among Welsh males was an ancient one. Most native Americans have the same one. Surprisingly perhaps, the genetics show that the Welsh are not related to the Cornish, despite the similarity of their languages. The Cornish are in effect Anglo-Saxons who for a time used a language that was hanging around. The genes of Scottish males betrayed considerable inter-mixing with outsiders".
James Wilson and Prof David Goldstein of University College London, with colleagues at Oxford University and the University of California, found that Welsh and Irishmen are genetic blood-brothers of the Basque people.
"The findings provide the first direct evidence of a close relationship between the people known as Celts and the Basques. The gene patterns of three races passed down through the male line are all strikingly similar, researchers concluded. Basques can trace their roots back to the Stone Age and are one of Europe's most distinct people, fiercely proud of their ancestry and traditions.
The team looked for similarities between the Y chromosomes (which are only carried by men) they sampled DNA from; 88 “Celtic fringe” individuals from Anglesey, North Wales, 146 from Ireland with Irish Gaelic surnames, and 150 Basques, revealing “remarkable' similarities. On the other hand, he and his colleagues compared Celtic and Norwegian populations and found them to be quite different.
The Celts carried the early Y chromosome, which provides the first clear evidence of a close relationship in the paternal heritage of Basque and Celtic speaking populations. “They were statistically indistinguishable', we also noticed that there's something quite striking about the Celtic populations, and that is that there's not a lot of genetic variation on the male Y-chromosome, We conclude that both the Basques and Celts are reflecting pre-farming Europe. Somehow these people have remained in isolation from the rest of Europe up until the Bronze age where their genes begin to indicate an influx of female genes from mainland Europe" said Prof Goldstein.
The other scenario is that these people were not living in Europe, but were in the Caribbean, the East Coast of America and on islands in the Atlantic.
Barry Fell, author of 'America B.C.' is an accomplished decipherer of ancient scripts and has managed to identify a great deal of Celtic, Phoenician, Iberian, Egyptian, Berber, Libyan and Viking scripts in America, indicating that a great deal of trade contact occurred during and after the Bronze Age, but ceasing around the time of the beginning of the Roman Empire. Apparently these great ocean navigators after the destruction of Carthage, decided to withhold all information on navigating to the Americas from the Romans and by the end of the Roman Empire and the onset of the dark ages, much was forgotten about trans Atlantic navigation and the Americas.
Barry Fell has identified Ogham script in America, Ireland, Spain and Africa that goes back to at least 800BC. Early Egyptian scripts were used by the Micmac of North America right up to the arrival of Missionaries. He also identifies many early style Celtic Megalithic monuments on the east coast of America, in particular New England, New Hampshire, Vermont and Woodstock, they take the form of Dolmens, Phallic menhir, Men-a-tol, massive stone Druid's chairs, megalithic chambers, Solstice and Equinox viewing chambers and burial mounds. These all parallel similar structures in Coastal Europe, especially on the Dingle peninsular, Brittany and some sites in Spain. As usual, this work has been ignored by the Eurocentric 'No one before Columbus' fraternity.
Although Barry Fell did not go further than assert that most Celtic connections occurred around the Bronze Age. He was not aware of the more ancient genetic connections the Celts had with the proto-American Indians. With further studies done, more accurate dating of the Dolmens and other megalithic monuments will possibly show that some American megaliths may actually predate the arrival of Celts on the Dingle peninsular in Ireland, indicating that the Caribbean and America was the original homeland of the Celts.
Giant stone shark in the Bahamas created in a similar way to the white horse of England and even the Nazca images,
suggesting a distant cultural connection between these separate groups of laterally thinking people that created images only apparent from the air - supposedly for the spirits in the heavens to view - in effect a gift to the gods.
New England's Celtic Place Names
“I was surprised to find many Amerindian place names had somehow survived the onslaught of colonists, rivers and geographical features, it would seem, tend to keep their old names despite the invasions of foreign conquerors.
Modern Gaelic preserves many spelled letters that are no longer pronounced, but when pronounced in the ancient Gaulish or ancestral tongue of the Celts and Basques, one finds a striking similarity to the Algonquian language.
For example; the Algonquian word for ‘one who takes small fish' is Amoskeag. In Gaelic Ammo-iasgag means ‘small fish stream'.
In Algonquian Ammonoosuc means ‘small fishing river' and in Gaelic, Am-min-a-sugh means; ‘small river for taking out fish'.
In Algonquian Coos and cohas mean ‘pine tree' and in Gaelic, ghiuthas means ‘pine tree'.
Merrimack River in Algonquian means ‘deep fishing'. In Gaelic Mor-riomach means ‘of great depth'.
Kaskaashadi another Algonquian name for the Merrimack River sounds similar to Guisgesiadi, which in Gaelic means ‘slow flowing waters'
Nashaway River in Algonquian means ‘land between' and in Gaelic naisguir means ‘land connecting'.
Piscataqua River means ‘white stone' and in Gaelic, Pioscatacua means ‘pieces of snow white stone'.
Seminenal River means ‘grains of rock', which in Gaelic is; semenaill
Quechee matches the Gaelic work Quithe meaning pit or chasm.
Ottauquechee River flows through a 162 feet deep gorge is similar to the Gaelic word Otha-Cuithe which means; ‘waters of the gorge'.
Cabassauk River in Algonquian means place of Sturgeon. The Sturgeon fish have unfortunately fallen victim to environmental degradation. Similar to Gaelic Cabach-sugh.
Attilah means blueberries and in Gaelic Aiteal means juniper berries.
Munt means people and in Gaelic muintear means people.
Monad means mountain and in Gaelic monadh means mountain.
The suffix - nock is used in New England to denote hills and mountains. Cnoc in Gaelic means hill or rocky outcrop.
Wadjak means on top, in Gaelic the word is uachdar.
Monomonock Lake means 'island lookout place' and in Gaelic Moine-managh-ach 'means boggy lookout place'.
Pontanipo Pond means cold water and in Gaelic Punntaine-pol means ‘numbingly cold pool'
Natukko means cleared place (land) and in Gaelic Neo-tugha means not covered (by vegetation).
Asquam Lake means ‘pleasant watering place' and in Gaelic Uisge-amail means ‘seasonable waters'.
These names which have stuck, through many changes over the past 300 years, are not names left by Bronze Age European traders who have sporadicly visitored America. These are names given to these places by the indigenous Amerindians. As the Gaelic language is unrelated to any Indo-European languages, this can mean only one thing - that the Gaelic language was the original mother tongue of many Amerindians. It stands to reason that anyone speaking Gaelic related languages in Europe were originally from America. The native name of Brittany in France is Armorica, another big hint as to their origins.
Stonehenge construction in Southwestern England, 2,900 B.C. is very similar to constructions in South America
of the same vintage. Photo, Maxine Marsh
Anasazi cup, man and spirals compared to spirals on a rock marking the entrance to a Celtic tomb.
More early Celtic designs compared to an Anasazi design
Anasazi Gazelles, compared to a Celtic petroglyph
Here are a few examples of Amerindians; Shoshone, Mohave, Crow, Crow and Zuni, showing that the Boundaries between people on the either side of the Atlantic is not as great as some would like to make out. (Interestingly the ancestry of the Shoshone becomes a little clearer when we see that a 22nd dynasty Egyptian king from ~1,000BC was King Shishong/Shosheng. This is not a coincidence - see Egyptian inscriptions in America . Barry Fell shows an inscription found in Texas, etched in the Libyan language using the Ogam alphabet, which tells of the arrival of the crew of a ship belonging to king Shishong). For a tribe to take on the name of a Pharaoh suggests to me that some sort of influence/inspiration has taken place between these two groups of people. The other possibility is that; when the Bronze Age catastrophically collapsed, America entered a long period of isolation from the old world, survivors of outlying Egyptian colonies then assimilated with Native American tribes - reinventing themselves with only fragments of their past intact.
Oldest Known North American Mummy From Enigma - 05/15/96
The "discovery" of the oldest known mummy in North America. The mummy, named the Spirit Cave man, was found on the shelves of the Nevada State Museum. Discovered in Nevada in 1940 it was originally thought to be 2000 years old. Recent radiocarbon dating has pushed its age back to 9,400 years (7,400 BC).
The most intriguing facts is that the mummy was wearing moccasins and shrouds of woven marsh plants. The weave of the shrouds indicates that it was made on a loom. If these findings turn out to be true it would mean that the there were people in North America more than 9,000 years ago with the knowledge and technology to weave cloths on looms. Such a level of sophistication again pushes back the dates of early civilization and should makes us question some long held assumptions about the primitiveness of ancient people. DNA and other tests are being undertaken.
Another genetic marker indicating that Caucasians were in America are the Araucanians of Chile. They have significant Paleolithic Caucasian genes in them. They are in effect a relic of the people of Atlantis.
Other studies show that Mayans, Incas and Auracanians are all virtually 100% group O, with 5-20% of the population being rhesus negative. this was the blood of the original Europeans, traditionally called the blood of royalty (blue blood) and stems from Cro Magnon man. The races that possess this blood are races of the Americas, the Canary Islands, the Basques, Celts, as well as some Polynesians.
6,000 years ago there are many indications that there was a terrible calamity. It is believed sea levels rose to two metres above their present levels. Genetic bottlenecks from this time suggest there were many large populations reduced to small numbers all over the world. There appears to have been an exodus from East Asia to America at this time as well as an Exodus from America to Europe.When the Rhesus positive Asians arrived in America 6,000 years ago, they inevitably interbred with the Rhesus negative Red Heads. This would have proved disasterous, for the already decimated population of Red Heads, as a rhesus negative mother who gives birth to a rhesus positive baby develops antibodies against rhesus positive blood and is then unable to succesfully have any more children without the help of modern medicine. Not only this, but blue eyes, blonde and red hair are all recessive genes and so the European heritage of American Indians was masked by the genes of the new comers. One dominant genetic trait reveals the Cro Magnon man heritage is hidden in American Indians is their tallness. Gigantism, common in America is also a genetic throwback to a time that once was, when 'size did matter' for survival, when hunting mammoths and sabre toothed tigers was a part and parcel of daily activities.
Age of the White Haired Giants
Aztec and Toltec history identifies that 17,608 years ago was the beginning of "The Age of the First Sun" or the "Age of White Haired Giants", or in Inca history - the Age of Viracochas - the “White and Bearded Gods”. According to European archaeology, Cro Magnon man was quite tall, had pale skin, blonde hair and was capable of growing beards. It sounds to me like cultures on either side of the Atlantic are describing the same breed of man.
Archaeological finds in America appear to confirm the existence of very tall people being the base layer of the Native American cultures.
A skeleton estimated as being 10,000 years old was found in the ‘tomb of Palli Aike' in Tierra del Fuego in 1969-70 and has been identified as Cro-Magnon, which indicates that these people also spread to South America.
In the book, The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, author John Haywood describes; "very large" bones in stone graves found in Williamson County, Tennessee, in 1821. In White County, Tennessee, an "ancient fortification" contained skeletons of gigantic stature averaging at least 7 feet in length.
In February and June of 1931, large skeletons were found in the Humboldt lake bed near Lovelock, Nevada. The first of these two skeletons found measured 8 1/2 feet tall and appeared to have been wrapped in a gum-covered fabric similar to the Egyptian manner. The second skeleton was almost 10 feet long.(Review - Miner, June 19, 1931).
George W. Hill, M.D., dug out a skeleton "of unusual size" in a mound of Ashland County, Ohio. In 1879, a nine-foot, eight-inch skeleton was excavated from a mound near Brewersville, Indiana(Indianapolis News, Nov 10, 1975)
In 1875 workmen were constructing a bridge near the mouth of Paw Paw Creek at Rivesville. While digging through heavy clay soil they were astonished to uncover three giant skeletons strands of reddish hair clinging to the skulls. A local doctor was called to examine the remains and was able ascertain after careful measurement, the skeletons had supported people approximately 8 feet tall.
Just as black haired Greeks had an earlier past of taller blonde and red haired people (the Titans), so did the Amerindians.
The Golden Age
13,600 years ago In Aztec legends, was the beginning of the Age of the Second Sun - the “Golden Age” and is remembered in Incan legends as the “Age of Giants”. This Age lasted 4,010 years, it began with the Biblical and Sumerian Great Flood, followed by the Deluge and ended with a calamity involving the Wind Serpent. The demise of Atlantis was somewhere in the middle of this.
European legends from Ireland, Brittany, Spain and North Africa and Egypt talk of their legendary homeland being on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, and in some legends it was called Atlantis.
This is how Central Americans remembered the people of Atlantis - interesting guns and breastplate they carry.
This is not the image archaeologists would have us believe for the Clovis hunter-gatherers from 11,500 years ago.
This map shows the position of the coastline during the height of the last ice age about 18,000 years ago. Seafloor topography clearly reveals the island of Atlantis in the Mid Atlantic. This area was pushed up to the ocean surface during the height of the last ice age as a reaction to the weight of over 3 km of ice on the poles, which depressed the crust in the Polar regions and caused weak areas of the the crust in mid lattitudes to distend outwards as the planet attempted to find an equilibrium. This effect would not be noticed on the continents as their thickness of 30 km or more would resist distortion, but the7-10km thin oceanic floors, especially the Mid Atlantic ridge where a seam of magma reaches the surface, would display the greatest amount of distortion, forcing the seafloor to rise a correspondingly similar distance to the depression at the poles - that is 2-3km. Today we are likely to witness a similar situation with Iceland - another island on the mid Atlantic ridge. As global warming continues to melt the ice at the poles, Iceland too, risks a sudden collapse under the surface of the ocean.
The seafloor around the Azores looks very much like the description of Atlantis - the island possibly as it was 11,500 years ago. The home of the Na Dene/Gaelic language and what are now known as Berber/Basque/Celtic genes, now found in pockets around the world from the Indus region to Easter Island. This is the S.E. corner of the much larger island depicted in the above map. Plato described Atlantis as having a flat plain surrounded by mountains to the North. Two of the mountains depicted here are now giant calderas on the seafloor, possibly created in the final cataclysm as Atlantis was destroyed. The two arrows point to two rectangles marked on the marine chart from which this map was taken. These contours do not look natural and should be further investigated.
The following is an excerpt from Cedric Leonard's webpage Quest for Atlantis;
In 1948 geologist discovered "beachlike terraces" parallel to the Mid Atlantic ridge, beneath two miles of ocean water. Ewing cautiously observed: "It is, of course, extremely radical speculation to identify these level stretches more than two miles below the sea surface as former beaches. Such a theory would require the obvious but almost incredible conclusion that this land has subsided two miles or else the sea has risen by that amount". However, subsequent expeditions only strengthened the "incredible.
According to Ewing, long flat stretches were detected 2 to 20 miles wide and hundreds of miles long. These beach-like areas were always covered with thick sediments, indicating a long period of deposition, although occasionally separated by mountainous "higher ground" exhibiting no such sediments. (The Central Highland of the Ridge occasionally approaches four-fifths of a mile from the sea surface.) Ewing observed that deep ocean basins never have thick sediments--which are the result of surf action and river deposition--it is actually shorelines that display thick sediments. More evidence of just how recently such a landmass existed turned up during an expedition the following year.
The follow-up expedition in 1949 turned up numerous core samples from these terraces. These cores contained two different strata of beach sand: the older estimated to be 225,000-325,000 years of age, and the younger 20,000-100,000 years old (Ewing, 1949). Another significant fact is that the deposits were found to be well-sorted by surf action into the usual pattern of shoreline beaches familiar to geologists (Miller & Scholten, 1966). His conclusion was that: "Sometime in the distant past this sand found deep beneath the ocean must have been located on a beach, at or near the surface of the sea" (Ewing, 1949)
Still another oceanographic expedition, Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition of 1947-1948, yielded core samples containing sand from the Romache Deep along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Dr. Otto Mellis did not publish these findings until ten years later (Mellis, 1958). Other geologists have guardedly admitted that the Azore Islands (Central Atlantic) are composed chiefly of continental material, some even conceding that there might be enough continental material (sial) in the mid-Atlantic to make up a landmass the size of Spain (de Camp, 1970).
The six levels of terraces discovered by the Woods Hole expeditions suggest that the Atlantic island was constantly changing shape - as well as being reduced in size - before it finally disappeared at the end of the Ice Age. Such geological changes would have been catastrophic to any life living on such a landmass: the unhappy result of the constant violence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. If the Atlantic landmass happened to be inhabited by humans, these violent disturbances could well have been the cause of the four Cro-Magnon "invasions". These well documented invasions impacted the western shores of North Africa and Europe (including Great Britain and other Atlantic islands) and occurred during a time frame of 35,000-12,000 years ago (the latter date corresponding closely to the date given by Plato for the demise of Atlantis).
It is no coincidence that many Central American place names are also derived from the fabled city of Atlantis. Aztlan, Azatlan, Atlanta, Tlan, Tolan, Tulan, and Tenochtitlan are all linguistically similar.
The people of these cities would most likely have been descendants of the survivors of Atlantis. The Grand Bahama Banks - a shallow area of sea that 10,000 years ago would have been an island as big as Ireland and appears to have had trading ports around its perimeter. So far 60 sites have been found exhibiting remnants of buildings and ring structures. A Hexagonally tiled floor has been uncovered as well as numerous stone structures. The 500metre long Bimini Road is most likely a wharf as it juts out at right angles to the beach line and has a sharacteristic curve at the end which we still see in wharves in old English ports.There appear to be numerous sites on the southern side of the Bahama banks, adjacent to Cuba, which also has many underwater ruins along its northern shore, including stone Quarries in 10-20 metres of water.
When comparing Platos story to this area it all fitted except for talk of horses and elephants in the city. I then looked up mammal extinctions in North America, to find that Mastodons and horses became extinct approximately 11,000 years ago! This correlates perfectly with the Clovis hunters and the time of Atlantis.
Archaeological evidence shows that the Clovis people multiplied and spread across North America from the Gulf of Mexico about 13,000 years ago. This period abruptly ended with the demise of the megafauna of North America along with end of the Clovis people. A comet impact in North America around this time as evidenced by the 500,000 craters known as the Carolina Bays (see Catastrophes Chapter) could possibly have been the cause of this abrupt end to an Era in America.
Adding weight to this meteoric intervention in the prehistory of America is new evidence of a 5km meteorite which struck the Ice sheet covering Canada/North America 13,000 years ago, showering S.W. America with water/ice debris.
500,000 of these craters litter SE America in a variety of soil, sand and silt types, all filled with sediment to the same degree, all of the same age, all with a crater rim on the S.E side only, all elongated N.W. to S.E., all with a layer of blue clay devoid of pollen and organic matter below the silt. Bullets of water impacting the ground either from a disintegrating ice comet or a meteorite striking an ice sheet NW of the Bays, can be the only two explanations for these features. The main body or head of the comet would have landed in the Atlantic Ocean. Geologists believe the resultant Tsunami from such an event would have been as much as 500m high and travelling at over 700 miles an hour. An horrific event.
The green area is presently underwater but most of it would have been exposed 8,000-12,000 years ago when sea levels were much lower.
The Grande Bahama Bank would have been a large island up until about 6,000 years ago.
Areas that are possiblly old city sites 8,000 years ago are marked here.
The large red spot marks the approximate position of a city recently found in approximately 700m deep water, suggesting a subsidence of the whole Cuban tectonic plate.
Gold dust common on the beaches of the Caribbean suggest remnants of the gold used to decorate the buildings in this area in ancient times. All of these sites would have evolved from survivors of the civilization of Atlantis.
Modern side scanning sonar has recently picked up what appears to be the ruins of a city on a 7sq mile plateau in 2300 feet of water, just off the edge of this shallow bay. Cuba is in a tectonically active area, with a deep oceanic trench (subduction zone) south of it. The age of these ruins are yet to be determined, the builders of these ruins are sure to have descended from the people of Atlantis.
1. Artists impression of what has been sited in 2000feet off the western end of Cuba.Image from Atlantisite.com.
2. Bimini Road. As this 500m long structure is at right angles to the old beach line it must be assumed that it was a wharf - the perfect place to stock up on provisions before hitching a ride on the Gulf Stream back to Britain, France and Spain.
Other sites of towns appear to be on the Grand Bahama Banks– a shallow area of sea that 6,000 years ago would have been an island 600x200 miles.Pottery ~6000 years old has been found amongst these ruins. So far 60 sites have been found exhibiting remnants of buildings and ring structures. A Hexagonally tiled floor, each tile, 6 foot across and 4" thick have been uncovered as well as numerous stone roads. There appears to be numerous sites on the southern side of the Bahama banks, adjacent to Cuba, which also has many underwater ruins along its northern shore, including stone Quarries in 10-20 metres of water.This period of development, starting 7,590 B.C. is remembered in Aztec legends as the beginning of the Age of the Third Sun - “The Age of the Red Haired People. These people are most likely a reformed fragment, from the survivors of Atlantis.
Ther have been many assertions that Atlantis was in: Spain, the Azores, South America, Western Africa and the Antarctic, not to mention other more outlandish suggestions that ignore a basic fact that it was outside the Pillars of Hercules (the Straits of Gibraltar) and have postulated that it was in Taiwan, Indonesia and the Black Sea. The Minoan civilization of Crete was another suggestion, but this culture is only 5,000 years old, therefore, if it does have any parallels with the ancient Atlantian culture, then it is from wayward settlers from the ancient American civilization of Atlantis.
Whether Atlantis was in the Azores or the Caribbean, products of this civilization show the greatest amount of evidence in America.
Atlantis was said to be on an island, one of 10 kingdoms that spanned a country as big as Africa and Asia together (N&S America). If these people were travelling back to Europe to fight the people of the Mediterranean, I am sure that islands of the Central Atlantic and coastal Spain would most certainly have been controlled by these people also. Even Lixus city on the West Coast of Africa was most likely active at this time too.
Use of Metals in ancient times
There is an ancient copper mine in Michigan that was used by these people and later by the Phoenicians and Berbers who exported about 500,000 tons of copper from this mine back to Europe, via the St Lawrence River and down the Mississippi to Central American civilizations.
In the bay at the western end of Cuba, where the main city of Atlantis was meant to have been situated, the sandy beach contains minute grains of gold. 11,600 years of erosion would easily reduce sheets of gold into minute grains. People have suggested this gold, which does not come from a motherload in the area, is from gold looted from the Aztecs and Incas on a Spanish wreck in the bay. It would not be possible for a cache of gold to be reduced to such fine specks in only 300 years.
talks of Orichalcum and Gold. He says they
hammered out great sheets of these metals and covered large stone structures
marking the entrance to great harbours. Is it possible that such early use of
metals has been hidden from archaeologists eyes? The earliest use of copper
in the world was in Michigan. So far copper artefacts ~8000 years old have been
found .Gold has also been found associated with ancient copper artefacts. Both
Copper and Gold can be found in nature as pure nuggets, the simple process of
hammering it into sheets would not have been a terribly difficult concept to
grasp. I suspect that the date for the earliest use of metals will be pushed
back to the time of Atlantis - 11,500BP.
Sometime after 11600years ago a god like person named Anu helped transform the primitive Sumerians into farmers. This can only be an individual representing the Anu, which are better known as the Veda of India. Then a 600 years later a group of white faced, purple clothed people with golden wings appear in the Sumerian historical records. They are seen as educators in the humanities, medicine and astronomy. These can only be individuals representing the people of Atlantis. As the cities of the Veda and the cities associated with Atlantis are all in at least 40m of water, little can be ascertained about the cultural development of these people until an actual city site is found. The cultural development of the Sumerians may give us some idea what these cultures were like.
The Age of the Red Heads
to the Aztecs, 7,590 B.C. or 9,500 years ago was the beginning of the Age of
the Third Sun also called the“Age of the Red Haired People.
These people were the survivors of the second age who had come by ship from the east to the New World, settling in the area he called Botonchan; they encountered there giants who also survived the second age, and became enslaved by them.
Not only did the Age of Red heads end in America and Begin in Europe at this time, but it also marks the massive genetic bottleneck in East Asia when the Thais, Tibetans, Tlingit, Haida and Hawaiians dispersed from the Taiwanese people.
Many people seem to think that Celts influenced American culture and ancient petroglyphs and megalithic monuments may seem to suggest this, but what one is seeing here is a dispersal of culture not to America, but from America.
After the final sea level rises 6,000 years ago, wiping the Bahama Banks clean of any civilization, there was a major shift in world populations. Remnants of this culture of Red Heads went their separate ways.The Celts took the Gulf stream back to their ancestral homeland of Europe, wheras the Anasazi, Hopi, Zuni, Algonquian and Auracano, just to name a few remained in mainland America and began to mix with incoming Asians who had suffered a similar catastrophe of Sea level rises on the East Asian coastline.
There are also suggestions that the Celts were in New Zealand before the Maori. This is not strictly true, they too along with the Red Heads of Rapa nui were also fragments of the Age of the Red Heads in America.
The Picts of Scotland were probably from a similar tribe to the the Tattooed Red Heads of the Pacific.
This design is from a plate from Panama, with the cross and swirls, it would not look out of place in a museum on ancient Celtic art. It would also not be out of place in a book on Maori art.The bird motif is beginning to look like a Taniwha. The turtle is a from Central America, and signifies the importance of the turtle in many of these ancient cultures, including Rapa nui.
Maps of The Ancient Sea Kings
It appears from various scources of evidence that the Red Heads were the major population in America and the Caribbean up to about 6,000 years ago. We know from their megalithic monuments that they were keenly interested in Astronomy, not just for determining the seasons, but for navigation and mapping. It therefore stands to reason that they were the people responsible for mapping the coastline of South America and the Antarctic during a particularly warm perion of the earths history, between 7,000 and 5,500 years ago. Core sampling aroun the Antarctica shows that there was very little sea ice during this time, making it possible for them to map a coastlinewhich is now under more than 1km of ice.
This global meltdown would have caused a rapid ries in sea levels, ultimately engulfing the seafaring towns of the world. Isostatic rebalancing as the load of ice was released from the poles would have caused major earthquakes, which in turn would have produced tsunamis, devastating coastal civilizations around the world. As a result there remains very little evidence of these once great civilizations now underwater. Their buildings have been levelled in places such as the Bahamas and only rare snippets of information survive such as the map below, to prove their seafaring prowess.
On the Front of Professor charles Hapgood's book "Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings" (Turnstone books, London 1979,) is the famous Piri Reis Map, drawn on a gazelle skin. It was found by a group of historians in 1929.
showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral
of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century.
His passion was cartography. His high rank within the Turkish navy allowed him to have privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople.
The Turkish admiral admits in a series of notes on the map that he compiled and copied the data from a large number of ource maps, some of which dated back to the fourth century BC or earlier.
1.The map on the left is by Piri Reis, who admitted that the map is a compilation of a number of maps. The coastline depicts the coast of Antarctica to the south, the coastline of South america to the West and the coast of West Africa on the Eastern side of the map.According to Charles Hapgood, Author of Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, the position of the coastline correlates very closely to the distortion created by spherical projection centred on Alexandria, Egypt. Interestingly the island marked on the North Eastern part of the map with its bays, correlates very closely with Taiwan.It appears that Piri Reis also thought that there was only one ocean and confused the western seaboard of the Atlantic with the western seaboard of the Pacific.A compilation map such as this could well have been what misled Chistopher Columbus into thinking that by crossing the Atlantic he could get to the East Indies.
2. The map on the right is by Oronteus Finaeus and was drawn in 1532. It has been placed on the world map at too large a scale, showing it to be too close to Africa and South America, this also suggests that Antarctica is a map from an earlier source. South America and Africa are drawn less accurately and show the world without the Pacific Ocean, thereby making the size of the world too small for the Antarctic of correct scale. This is the Map that Captain Cook probably had when he went in search of the Great Southern Land. Interestingly this map depicts the Antarctic coastline without ice very accurately. It shows bays that are still under the ice today. The mountain ranges are accurate and rivers marked entering the Ross Sea are where glaciers exist today. This strongly suggests that people were able to accuratly plot longitude to within a 1-2 degrees or approximately 90miles accuracy. It shows these people were busy mapping the world between 5,500 and 7,000 years ago when the Antarctic was free of ice.
Egyptian trading vessel 2,500BC
Professor Hapgood claimed that the lower part of the map portrayed the Princess Martha Coast of Queen Maud Land, Antarctic, and the Palmer Peninsular. The geographical detail shown in the lower part of the map agrees very remarkably with the results of the seismic profile made across the top of the ice-cap by the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition of 1949.
This indicates the coastline had been mapped before it was covered by the ice-cap, which is presently one mile thick.
Dr. Charles Hapgood, in his book, said that:
"It appears that accurate information has been passed down from people to people. It appears that the charts must have originated with a people unknown and they were passed on, perhaps by the Minoans and the Phoenicians, who were, for a thousand years and more, the greatest sailors of the ancient world. We have evidence that they were collected and studied in the great library of Alexandria (Egypt) and the compilations of them were made by the geographers who worked there.
Piri Reis had probably come into possession of charts once located in the Library of Alexandria, the well-known most important library of the ancient times.
According to Hapgood's reconstruction, copies of these documents and some of the original source charts were transferred to other centers of learning, and among them to Constantinople. Then in 1204, year of the fourth crusade, when the Venetians entered Constantinople, those maps begun to circulate among the European sailors.
In fact Piri Reis himself
admitted he based his map on way older charts; and those older charts had been
used as sources by others who have drawn different maps still of great precision.
Impressive is the "Dulcert's Portolano", year 1339, where the latitude of Europe and North Africa is perfect, and the longitudinal coordinates of the Mediterranean and of the Black sea are approximated of half degree.
An even more amazing chart is the "Zeno's chart", year 1380. It shows a big area in the north, going up to Greenland; Its precision is flabbergasting. "It's impossible" says Hapgood "that someone in the fourteenth century could have found the exact latitudes of these places, not to mention the precision of the longitudes..."
Another amazing chart is the one drawn by the Turkish Hadji Ahmed, year 1559, in which he shows a land strip, about 1600 Km. wide, that joins Alaska and Siberia. Such a natural bridge has been covered by water for almost 10,000 years.
Oronteus Fineus was another one who drew a map of incredible precision. He too represented the Antarctic with no ice-cap, year 1532.
There are maps showing Greenland as two separate islands, as it was confirmed by a polar French expedition which found out that there is an ice cap quite thick joining what it is actually two islands.
Not only this but most of the old Greenland maps show the coastline without ice and they depict rivers in the valleys, not glaciers, suggesting this area was mapped during a warmer period of the Earth's history - most likely during the warm period 5-7,000 years ago. Was it information from this warm period that led Captain Cook to look for the North West Passage - across the top of Canada? (This information would have come into the hands of the Royal British Navy, via plundered Spanish Galleons).
well as maps of the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines, Hapgood found a copy
of a map carved on a rock column in China, from 1137. It showed the same high
level of technology of the other western charts, the same grid method, the same
use of spheroid trigonometry. It has so many common points with the western
ones that it makes one think that there had to be a common source:
They seem to be pieces of a very ancient world wide map, drawn by unknown people who were able to use mathematics, trigonometry and the most baffling of all, had acess to accurate timekeeping equipment.
When human beings were supposed to live in a primitive manner, someone "put on paper" the whole geography of the earth. And this common knowledge somehow fell into pieces, then gathered here and there by several people, who had lost the technical knowledge, so just copied what they could find in libraries, bazaars, markets and all kind of places.
This evidence of a lost technology suggested by these ancient maps will support and give credence to many of the other hypotheses that have been brought forward of a lost civilization in remote times. Scholars have been able to dismiss most of those evidences as mere myth, but here we have evidence that cannot be dismissed. The evidence requires that all the other evidences that have been brought forward in the past should be re-examined with an open mind."
Graham Hancock in his book Underworld, also points out that the Island of Hy Brasil marked on many of these ancient maps lies directly on top of Porcupine Banks a shallow area that would have been an island during the last ice age. He also points out that ancient maps of India and the Maldives depict the coastline as it was 15-20,000 years ago when sea levels were approximately 80m lower.
The following information indicates that conditions were favourable for mapping both Greenland and the Antarctica without ice, from 7,000 to 5,500 years ago, in other words during the Age of the Red Heads in America. As it is known from numerous archaeological sites around the Atlantic and in especially in America around areas such as the Yucatan, Lake Titicaca and Nevada, that these people were avid astronomers, it stands to reason that it was these native Americans were the great mappers of the world.
Antarctic ice sheet key to sudden sea level rise
Researchers show Antarctic ice sheets may not be as stable as previously thought
by Janet Wong
March 28, 2002 -- Physicists from Canada, the United States and Britain have concluded that a massive and unusually abrupt rise in sea level about 14,000 years ago was caused by the partial collapse of ice sheets in Antarctica, solving a mystery scientists have been heatedly debating for more than a decade.
Near the end of the last Ice Age, the Earth's sea level abruptly rose over 20 metres - four times faster than usual for that time period and at least 20 times faster than sea levels are rising now, report geophysicists Jerry Mitrovica of the University of Toronto, Peter Clark of Oregon State University , Glenn Milne of the University of Durham in the U.K. and Mark Tamisiea, a post-doctoral fellow at U of T, in the March 29 issue of Science .
The cause of this event - called the global meltwater pulse 1A, first identified in 1989 - has been unknown until now. The scientists say their research not only pinpoints the source of the meltwater pulse as coming from West Antarctica. It also makes the case that significant climatic events can occur very rapidly and unpredictably.
Antarctic mud reveals ancient evidence of global climate change By Mark Shwartz
In 1998, ODP scientists extracted a 150-foot-long sediment core from the muddy bottom of the Palmer Deep - a submerged section of the continental shelf along the west Antarctic Peninsula about 3,000 feet below sea level. The sediment sample was loaded with the shells of microscopic creatures called diatoms dating back some 10,000 years to the beginning of the Holocene - the most recent geologic epoch.
"The Antarctic Peninsula is an ideal region to investigate climate change at decadal to millennial time scales due to its location in one of the Earth's most dynamic climate systems," noted Dunbar. "The ODP sample gives us the first continuous, high-resolution Holocene sediment record from the Antarctic continental margin."
The sediment sample revealed higher concentrations of diatom shells during the mid-Holocene, roughly 5,500 to 7,000 years ago, which indicates that the waters surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula were more biologically productive then. According to Dunbar, higher productivity suggests that sea ice was less abundant during the mid-Holocene - a further indication that temperatures were higher.
"We think it was quite a bit warmer then," he observed, noting that geochemical analysis of the sediment also revealed higher levels of nitrogen during the mid-Holocene. "Warmer temperatures appear to have produced freshwater streams that fed nitrogen and other nutrients into coastal waters," he explained.
During this warm period, sea levels rose from approximately 20m below the present sea level to approximately 1.7m higher than present day levels.
Legends around the Caribbean tell of a heavy rain falling for many days and many were drowned. It was this deluge that separated their islands from the mainland.
Little by little subsequent tempests submerged the lands of the Bahamas, separating the people from one another by arms of the sea.
These legends most likely tell of the polar meltdown around 6,000 years ago described above, separating and isolating the red heads living on what is now the Bahaman banks. Thus giving rise to the Anasazi and Celts.
Next was the Age of the Black Haired people, which according to Aztec and Toltec history began 5,514years ago, and was called the Age of the Fourth Sun. This was the time of arrival of the East Asian civilization into America, via the Kuroshio current from submerged cities North and South of Taiwan. Genetics indicates that the actual genetic bottleneck (or ocean voyage) occurred 6,000 years ago. The peace loving Kukul Khan (Kukulcan)- the Mayan culture hero was obviously Asian.
Other Civilizations around the time of Atlantis
9,500 year old City Found Underwater off India
Discovery in Bay of Cambay Will Force Western Archaeologists to Rewrite History
Marine scientists in India, have discovered archaeological remains of a lost city 36 metres (120 feet) underwater in the Gulf of Cambay off the western coast of India. Carbon dating indicates that the city is 9,500 years old.
According to the BBC's Tom Housden, reporting on the Cambay find:
The vast city which is five miles long and two miles wide. It is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years. The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India's National Institute of Ocean Technology, who were conducting a survey of pollution. Using sidescan sonar, which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean, they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of 120 feet. Debris recovered from the site, including construction material, pottery, sections of walls, beads, sculpture, and human bones and teeth has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9,500 years old (BBC article).
Several reports confirm this estimate. Housden added, "The whole model of the origins of civilisation will have to be remade from scratch."
Unheard-of Scope of Cambay Ruins
The BBC article tells us that the remains of this ancient city stand upon "enormous foundations." Marine archaeologists discovered them with a technology known as "sub-bottom profiling." in 130 feet of water, they recieved sonar images of square and rectangular shapes with 90-degree angles off the northwestern coast of India in the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay). The Indian Minister of Science and Technology ordered that the site be dredged. What was found has surprised archaeologists around the world"
The Find Includes Human Remains
Linda Moulton Howe, who investigates occurrences of this type worldwide, interviewed Michael Cremo about this new discovery. Cremo is a researcher and author of the book Forbidden Archaeology. Cremo, Howe said, has visited India and attended local meetings about the Cambay site.
"Within the past few months," Cremo told her, "the engineers began some dredging operations there and they pulled up human fossil bones, fossil wood, stone tools, pieces of pottery, and many other things that indicated that it indeed was a human habitation site that they had. And they were able to do more intensive sonar work there and were able to identify more structures. They appeared to have been laid out on the bank of a river that had been flowing from the Indian subcontinent out into that area."
According to Howe:
Even if we don't know what the cultural background of the people is, if it does happen to be a city that is 9500 years old, that is older than the Sumerian civilization by several thousand years. It is older than the Egyptian, older than the Chinese. So it would radically affect our whole picture of the development of urban civilization on this planet.
Now, if it further happens that additional research is able to identify the culture of the people who lived in that city that's now underwater. If it turns out they are a Vedic people, which I think is quite probable given the location of this off the coast of India, I think that would radically change the whole picture of Indian history which has basically been written by Western archaeologists.
It has often been said that the Hindu religion is one of the most ancient religions of the world, it is also said that the English language has it's origins in India, now we know why.
From previous chapters we learnt that the Anu were a people from which the Ainu and Veda are descended from. In Biblical records, Lord Anu was the culture bringer to the Sumerians. According to Hebrew texts, from which the bible was written, occurred 10,000 years ago. In other words, knowledgeable survivors of the civilizations of India, decided to resurrect their civilization amongst the Sumerian tribesmen. This began western civilization as we know it in the history books. According to Christian O'Brien, in his book "The Genius of the Few" The great 'Lord Anu' decided to 'plant a garden in Eden' which was a fertile valley overlooking fertile plains in Lebanon where a village named Ehdin still exists. Then 600 years later the "Shining ones" - white faced, purple robed people with gold wings came and gave them incredible scientific knowledge. These people were obviously survivors of the pan Atlantic culture (Cro Magnon man) that also gave rise to the purple robed, red haired Phoenicians, the blue robed copper culture of the Tuaregs, the seafaring Berbers, Celts, Basques, Toltecs, Anasazi and Araucano. It would only be natural, that the survivors of the global catastrophe that occured 11,600 years ago, regardless of their origins, would have pooled together their recources to start anew.
In the Hebrew chronicles of Enoch it says; "I awoke to find in my room, two very tall men, different from any that I have seen in the lowlands. Their faces shone like the Sun and their eyes burned like lamps; and the breath from their mouths was like smoke (tobacco or hashish). Their clothes were remarkeable - being purplish, with the appearance of feathers; and on their shoulders were things which I can only describe as 'like golden wings'.
......the men brought me to the sixth haven, and there I saw seven groups of 'Angels'. Some of these 'Angels' study the movements of the Stars, the Sun and the Moon and record the peacful order of the World. Other 'Angels' there, undertake teaching and give instruction in clear and melodious voices. Others are responsible for recording the fauna and flora in both the Highlands and the Lowlands.There are 'Angels' who record the seasons and the years, others who study the rivers and the seas, others who study the fruits of the lowlands and the plants and herbs which give nourishment to men and beasts. And there are 'Angels' who study mankind and record the behaviour of men and how they live.
These are petroglyphs are from Nevada and California and depict the
Irish god Ogma Grian Aineac, 'meaning Ogma the Sun Faced'
who precided over the occult and was the inventor of Ogam writing.
The Ogam symbols in his left hand spell his name 'Ogam'.
In his right hand is a druids wand. From; America B.C. by Barry Fell.
Ogam writing is found on many megalithic monuments in America and has often been passed off as marks from ploughs, despite the fact that such inscriptions are on walls of tombs. Their answer to this is that early settlers must have built these 'bunkers' out of rocks in the field after repeated ploughing to cause such a multitude of scratches. Once again the intelligence of so called scientists is called into question.
It appears that Cro Magnon man was much more than a dirty unshaven bloodthirsty barbaric troglodite who hunted animals and dragged women around by the hair. It seems that there was once a highly sophistocated civilization that influenced many cultures around the world before it was destroyed by the hand of nature. Ogam writing, often assumed to be idle scratches in rock was their writing system. It was a simple method easily taught using the fingers. This writing system is based on sounds and has no connection to the modern alphabet. Although mainstream scientists deny that this writing system was around before 1000BC, bone tools from 20,000 years ago have been found with grooves cut in them similar to ogam writing. We should keep our minds and eyes open to the meaning of ancient inscriptions, they may teach us a lot about our ancestors.
Pages extracted from America B.C. by Barry Fell. Other styles of writing are quite common in America, suggesting a thriving trans Atlantic trade during the Bronze Age.
Micmac writing, once thought to be the brainchild of an over zealous missionary, turns out to be closely related to an ancient Egyptian script that was unknown by westerners, let alone - deciphered, until more recent times. The Micmac are from the shores of the St Lawrence River - right on the Bronze Age trade route from Isle Royale copper mine back to the Mediterranean.