Engineering of the First Order

(Page 46)

The Montreal was presented exclusively to the international press in April 1971. With this news presentation [nuova prezentazione], carried out on the track of Balocco, Alfa announced the imminent commercialisation of the car

A few days earlier, a 33 brought back (its) first outright victory in the World Championship of Makes.

This sensational achievement was possible in great part by the abilities [doti] of the 3 litre engine with which the 33-3 was equipped. This version of the V8 was designed in the first months of 1967. A little later Busso directed the difficult development of the engine for the Montreal. It departed from the 2 litre version with the intention of enlarging it to 2500-2600 cc.

This decision was strengthened by one episode. In December 1967 a single-seat Brabham, equipped with a V8 engine of 2.5 litres, obtained notable results in the Tasman Cup, a championship which comprised races in both Australia and New Zealand.

The Milanese company, on request from the Australian Alfa Romeo agent, had supplied a V8 engine of 2 litres, later enlarged to 2.5 litres for the Brabham. The motor, given dual ignition and Spica indirect injection, supplied 315 hp at 8,800 rpm.

Within Alfa this result was commented on favourably. A few months later also a few 33s prepared by Auto Delta were equipped with an engine enlarged to 2 and a half litres. The increase in capacity was obtained by taking the stroke from 52.2 to 64.4mm, leaving the bore unchanged at 78mm.

The debut occurred at the Targa Florio of 1968, where the cars proved to be immediately competitive. Almost simultaneously, in April of the same year, the engine of 2593cc of the Montreal began bench testing. Its characteristics confirmed its direct descent from the competition 2 litre: V8 of 90 degrees, built entirely of aluminium, with central intake and outside exhaust.

The adaptions [adattamenti] carried out on the new engine, small but rather laborious, concerned induction and balancing the crankshaft.

While the new engine was being tested the remaining mechanicals were settled (on).

The gearbox was ordered from Germany's ZF; at the time Alfa did not have available a production gearbox able to support the power supplied by the V8.

Exploiting the floorpan of the Giulia coupe, the Montreal adopted the same mechanicals. Only the brakes and the rear axle had to be adapted to the needs of the new car.

During the presentation at Balocco the press was able to try out, even if at the side of expert test drivers, the maximum performance of the Montreal. The journalists were surprised by the quality of the engine which, unlike the bodywork, did not appear to suffer from the affects of time.

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Characteristics of the Engine

To produce the engine of the Montreal, the 2 litres of the 33 was enlarged to 2593cc by means of increasing the bore, from 78 to 80mm, and the stroke, from 52.2 to 64.5mm. Moreover the compression ration was lowered from 10.7 to 9:1.

The maximum power produced was 200 hp DIN at 6,500 rpm, while the maximum torque was 24.5 kgm DIN at 4,750 rpm. Values still today of the highest level. It is sufficient to compare these figures with those of the 3 litre engine of the current (Alfa) SZ: 210 hp DIN at 6,200 rpm and 25 kgm DIN at 4,500 rpm. Passing (on) to the study of the components of the engine, the cylinder heads are in light alloy with inserted valve seats and hemispherical combustion chambers with central spark plug.

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The pistons are in aluminium, with the crown characterised by two recesses corresponding to the heads of the two valves. They have three rings, two for compression and one for oil scraping. On the 2 litre engine of the 33, the pistons, always made up of three components [con tre segmenti], had a raised crown to increase the compression ratio.

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The Intake and Exhaust Systems [Distribuzione]

The intake and exhaust systems also reflected in outline those of the 33.

The valves, in the head, are controlled directly by camshafts which act with the interposition of buckets in a bath of oil. The camshafts, two for each bank, are activated by chains mounted in the front parts of the engine block.

The control of induction and exhaust of the 33 engine was of mixed type: a train of toothed wheels and chains.

The camshafts each rest on five bearings mounted in the heads. The valves, two per cylinder, are disposed in a narrow V (48 degrees).

This solution, derived directly from the 33 engine, was permitted by the wide value of the bore, associated with the hemispherical design of the combustion chambers.

This presented two substantial advantages: it did not interfere with the sphericality of the chamber, which maintained this way the ideal values for efficiency, and it allowed the adoption of valves of suitable dimensions (33 mm for the inlet and 28 mm for those of the exhaust, but also larger for competition use, respectively 40.5 and 36 mm for the inlet and exhaust valves of the 33) which ensured complete filling [of the cylinders] at any engine load [regime].

The person responsible for the project, Busso, recalls that this solution was chosen also to reduce the distance between the valves and thus increase the volumetric efficiency.

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This was the new tendency in engines of that time. Among others this was applied also on the last engine designed by Busso: the Alfa V6, an engine still today among the best available on the market and adopted on both the 75 and the 164. [Note from Malcolm - in the V6 this layout was obtained by using a single camshaft running on the inlets, with a small rocker shaft activating the exhausts, although some later V6s use a twin-cam configuration].

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The Block [Basamento]

It is, naturally, very similar to that of the 33. Built in light alloy, it is given removable cast iron sleeves with direct contact with the coolant.

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The Crankshaft

This was built in forged steel. It was equipped with cranks at 90 degrees and rested on five bearings. The main bearings [cuscinetti di banco] are of thin indiumised [indiumizzato] shells, that is to say trimetallic (base [carcassa] in iron, covered in indium metal alloyed with tin).

The engine of the 33 adopted instead a flat plane crankshaft (still resting on five bearings) with cranks at 180 degrees. This solution was ideal for a competition engine. It simplified, in fact, the design of the exhaust pipes and made the crankshaft lighter, in part (because) there would be no need for heavy counterweights for balancing. For road use of the engine it proved more suitable to angle at 90 degrees the four cranks of the shaft at the bends. This allowed the counterbalancing of the second order forces, which are generated by the connecting rods in their lateral oscillations. The result was the pleasant and characteristic uneven throb of the exhaust.

Such a choice nevertheless required the design of a more complicated crankshaft than the original. "The production of the Montreal V8", recalls Busso, "was characterised by a problem which required considerable research: the balance of the crankshaft. The space available in the sump of the engine for counterweights was very meagre, so for that reason it was necessary to use a metal of considerable specific weight. We made, therefore, recourse to an unusual [particolare] metal, with high specific weight, which we found in Germany, turconit."

The greater [elaborata] balance thus obtained, therefore, depended on a very valuable material (an alloy of sintered tungsten, chosen for its very high specific weight - 17 kg/dm3, used up to then only in aero engines). This allowed a reduction in the dimensions of the crankshaft and the obtaining of an engine of high specific power (77 HP/litre DIN).

Without these meticulous measures the V8 would have been characterised by annoying vibrations, reducing comfort and the durability of the engine itself. With the counterweights the first order inertial forces, rotating in the same direction as the crankshaft, were in fact balanced. Moreover, the reduction in weight and size of the engine was the primary element in arriving at a particularly favourable power/weight ratio (6.25 kg/HP DIN).

The excellent results achieved by the designers are testified to by the incredible longevity of the motor, which is able to exceed the threshold of 100,000 km without showing any problems. (This was) an exceptional fact for such a powerful engine.

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The Connecting Rods

Connecting rods were of tungsten steel and the bearings of thin indiumized shells. Connecting rods of this type were usually used in competition engines for their high capacity to absorb vibration.

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The Lubrication System

The lubrication circuit, as on the racing V8, is of the dry sump type with an oil tank separately placed in the engine bay. The lubrication system is forced, with a rotary pump driven by a chain. The system is given moreover a scavenging pump, an oil radiator, mounted as a unit with that for water, and a cartridge oil filter on the main circuit. This configuration eliminates the friction losses [resistenza passive] resulting from the movement [sbattimento] of the oil, especially during curves taken at high speed, and contributes, moreover, to the aerodynamics of the car because of the reduction in height of the sump.

"The dry sump lubrication system", maintains Busso, "reduced the height of the engine. This permitted its location in the engine bay of the Montreal, even if with some modifications, as testified by the bulge of the bonnet."

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The Fuel System

The fuel supply of the engine of the 33 was ensured by a Lucas indirect injection pump. Functionally very simple, it was adapted for use in competition, but certainly not that of the road seeing also the need for always less polluting exhaust emissions which in that period was already maturing.

When the decision to mount the V8 engine in the Montreal was taken, therefore, it was necessary to modify the fuel system by means of the installation of a new injection pump, derived from that already adopted in the Alfa cars destined for the American market.

The Milanese company turned, once again, to Spica of Lavorno, a business associated with Alfa Romeo. The system was realised by means of indirect injection, with a pump of 8 cylinders in line. To each one of these corresponded an injector located in the inlet port of each cylinder.

But we see in detail the layout of the installation. Between two volumetric electric pumps, the fuel, now purified, was sent from the tank to a filter on the cut-off valve [mandata], placed in the engine bay. The two fuel pumps, placed outside the tank, begin to function at the turn of the key into the starting position. From the filter, the fuel goes to the inlet of the injection pump, positioned at the front between the two banks of the engine.

The pump, which is driven, by means of a toothed belt, by the inlet camshaft on the left cylinder head, measures out the fuel in relation to the position of the air inlet butterfly, placed in the air box [collettori di aspirazione]. The pump is constructed of two distinct parts: the pump group and the control group.

In the first group (there is), a small eccentric shaft, (which) by means of the interposition of special mechanisms, controls eight small pistons. The climbing and descent of the small pistons occurs, therefore, mechanically and not by the action of an appropriately calibrated spring. This fact differentiates the Alfa Romeo-Spica pump from that of the Diesel and justified for it the name of "Desmodromica".

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In the control group we find the barometric capsule, the thermostat and the device for the exclusion of the cut-off valve [mandata] in release (on trailing throttle?) [rilascio]. The first adjusts the fuel/air mixture for variations in atmospheric pressure. The thermostat guarantees the steady functioning of the engine after starting from cold, in relation to the temperature of the liquid in the cooling system of the engine. The device for the exclusion of the cut-off valve, in summary, is made up of an electromagnetic switch (solonoid?), detecting the effects of the position of the accelerator, regulating the pump when running up to 1300 rpm of the engine, this to avoid the emission of unburnt and harmful gas to the exhaust given by imperfect combustion.  [I am not happy with this translation - the original text reads - Il dispositivo per l'esclusione della mandata, infine, costituito da un interruttore electtromagetico, risentendo della posizione dell'accelatore, regola la pompa in mandata nulla fino ai 1300 giri/min del motore, cio per evitare scoppi ed emissioni di gas incombusti e nocivi allo scarico, dovuti a imperfetta combustione.  Bruce Taylor's suggested (and much clearer) translation is:  "Briefly, the fuel cut-off system comprises a rack override device operated by a solenoid which is activated by a microswitch controlled by a follower pin on the deceleration profile on the bottom of the 3D cam. When the accelerator is released above 1300 rpm this causes the fuel to be cut off in order to reduce the emission of unburned hydrocarbons and polluting exhaust gases during deceleration."]

The injection pump was able, moreover, to be regulated manually, by means of a lever placed in the engine bay, to adjust the rate of flow of fuel to the average seasonal temperature.

From the injection pump the fuel, under pressure and appropriately [adeguatamente] measured out, was sent to the injectors placed in the inlet port, between the butterfly and the inlet valve. These were able to atomise completely and in a homogenous manner all the injected fuel. [Essi provvedono a polverizzare completamente e in maniera omogenea tutto il combustibile iniettato].

From the injection pump, a return circuit is provided to send (back) the excess fuel, which caries out the function of cooling the electric pumps, to the (fuel) tank.

It is worth noting the presence of an expansion tank for the recirculation [recircolo] of vapour, placed in the interior of the boot and communicating with the fuel tanks. The tank also communicates with the outside for the expulsion of vapour which does not recondense [non si sono ricondensati].

In the engine of the Montreal exists a complete installation of air supply. This is composed of two stages. One for the feeding of air to the motor at idle, the other for feeding air at the highest loads.

This assembly is comprised of two inlets, placed behind the grill [calandra], and connected to the air filter housing by means of two rubber tubes. The housing contains two filter cartridges of parallelepiped form connected to the butterfly assembly, in aluminium, from eight inlet trumpets having their mouths turned towards the filters.

The air supply with the engine at idle, that is with the butterfly closed, is assured by a separate circuit of which the principle element is the block ["blocchetto"] installed at the rear of the filter housing. This element takes air from the filter and oil vapour from the "blow-by"[1] tank placed at the front of the engine bay. [1]Device to recirculate the gases escaping from the block for the reduction in atmospheric pollution. [Note from Malcolm, in other words PCV].

The block [blochetto], by means of tubes connected downstream of the butterfly, distributes the air to the cylinders uniformly for perfect regularity of functioning of combustion at idle.

[From an email I received from Bruce Taylor, owner of the Montreal Web page in Switzerland:  "... he is referring to the idling air equalising block ("blocchetto", not blochetto).  In early Montreals this was mounted at the rear of the air cleaner box, although as described in the "Idling" section on my website a different scheme with equalisers on each air inlet tube was adopted later.  The later scheme actually results in some idling air being drawn in from before the air filter! The technical reason why this change was made is the subject of constant debate among Monti owners and as Alfa's engine division are trashing their archives we will probably never know for sure."  Boo, hiss Alfa for trashing your history; following on the footsteps of all the stuff from the Australian (including Montreal spares) and North American operations that went to the tip when they were both scaled back in the early '90's...]

The inlet manifold, taut and elongated [tesi e prolungati], enters, as already seen, the air filter housing. This solution furnishes the maximum "ram effect", an effect of the dynamic overfeeding of the cylinders given by the phenomenon of resonance of the air column.

Augmenting the volumetric efficiency of the engine in this way favoured the flattening of the torque curve, with a considerable improvement in the flexibility of the motor for all road use: already, at 2,700 rpm, the engine delivers 90% of its maximum torque, c. 22 kgm.

Alfa Romeo, in its own technical publications, in this way describes the advantages of this system of injection compared to feeding by carburettors: "Torque and power increased, by an improvement in filling the cylinders given by the absence of every restriction in the passage of the air (see diffusers) [vedi diffusori]; it is possible to use higher compression ratios and lower required octane (thanks to) the homogeneity and the equality of the measuring out between the various cylinders; reduction in specific consumption by the possibility of using leaner mixtures since the cylinders receive exactly the same quantity of petrol; insensibility to the conditions of varied movement (curves, braking, acceleration) lacking the (requirement of a ) float chamber [vaschetta] (for) constant level; reduction in the percentage of toxic substances in the exhaust." Nevertheless, the great complexity of this system involved [comporti] some problems, especially those of maintenance entrusted to non-specialist personnel or the owner not following the measures [disposizione] advised by the company.

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After a long period of inactivity, in fact, the pistons [pompati] of the injection pump could oxidise. For this the owners' and maintenance manuals suggested adding to the fuel contained in the tank the quantity of engine oil necessary to obtain a 2% mixture. Doing this then running the engine for several minutes one obtained total protection of the (fuel) circuit from possible oxidation.

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The Exhaust System

This was developed in a very similar manner to that of the 33 and in harmony with the inlet system. The exhaust manifolds, made of steel, joined from all cylinders into one unique manifold for each bank (four-in-one). From this originated two separate exhaust systems, given three mufflers each, which extended separately along all the length of the car.

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The Ignition System

This was a novelty for an Alfa car, being of the electronic capacitor discharge type.

The distributor [spinterogeno] is Morelli, while the two coils and the ignition module [centrolina] are Bosch.

The system is made up of two separate circuits. Each circuit, given an individual coil and ignition module, is connected to the corresponding contact breaker on the distributor, (from) where a single rotating brush feeds all the cables to the spark plugs. The body of the ignition module was made of a casting of elektron, an alloy of magnesium and aluminium, with cooling fins.

The distributor, with a body of aluminium alloy, is of the type used in sports and competition cars. It is activated by means of a drive [rinvio] from the exhaust camshaft of the right bank. The spark plugs are the Lodge 2HL of 10mm, of a type with four points and a central electrode.

The first version of the 33 engine was instead given a normal system, but with dual ignition, with two distributors and four coils. The advantages of the Bosch ignition were many: insensitivity to the resistance given by fouling of the plugs; greater reserves of voltage for cold starting and high speeds; better starting [una fasatura piu precisa dell'accensione]; increase in the life of the spark plugs and reduction in unburnt gases, as it was possible to use a leaner mixture. The installation was of the same type as installed in the Porsche 911E and on Maseratis.

Regarding the electrical system we have only to say that it was given an alternator of 720W and battery of 64 AH.

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The Cooling System

For cooling the engine had a system of closed circuit type with (an) expansion tank. The circulation, forced, was assured by a centrifugal pump driven by chains. On the radiator was installed an electric fan with a thermostatic valve, equipped with a shroud [dotato di convogliatore].

Unfortunately the location of the water pump, at the front of the centre of the V of the engine, rendered its replacement problematic. It required, in fact, the removal of the front cover of the engine and the accessories placed in front of it. To facilitate the job the engine was usually removed from the mounts and the gearbox, to make it possible to lift the front and thus make more accessible the area involved.

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The Transmission

The transmission of the power [moto] to the driving wheels at the rear occurred by means of a shaft similar to that of the Giulia model. It was therefore made up of two tubes, made of steel, and with an intermediate support joined flexibly to the body.

The first tube is joined to the gearbox by means of a rubber coupling. The second is given a universal joint [cardanica a rullini] at each end.

The clutch, hydraulically actuated, is single dry plate with helper springs [parastrappi] for progressive action and a diaphragm spring

For the gearbox, as already pointed out, (Alfa) turned to an external supplier: "Once (we had) settled the choice of the motor", recalls Busso, "it required [si passo alla] the remaining mechanicals be adjusted to the characteristics of the engine. We turned, therefore, to a gearbox of ZF manufacture, with a different alignment of speeds [Note from Malcolm - presumably shift pattern] with respect to Alfa gearboxes, built for the considerable power supplied by the engine."

The gearbox, built with an excellent choice of ratios, is of five speeds with molybdenum synchromesh. Mounted in unit with the engine, it is controlled by a short central lever which allows fast and precise connection to the gears.

Naturally, as with all the Alfas of the time, the fifth speed was a real gear [vera marcia] [Note from Malcolm - as opposed to an overdrive] which allowed genuine [reali] capacity for acceleration, corresponding to the considerable flexibility of the engine.

At the rear was located the differential, of hypoid type (ratio to the rear axle 10:41), with 25% limited slip. Derived also from the production Giulia, it was distinguished by the bulky sump, placed below the housing of the differential. This allowed an increase in the capacity of lubricant and increased the cooling of the gears.

The limited slip differential was adopted to ensure high stability [assetto] of the car in very tight curves or in the case of different grip on the ground of the driving wheels.

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Wheels and Tyres

The light alloy wheels were made by Compagnelo by means of casting in elektron at low pressure. Before this time, such a process was reserved only for the construction of competition wheels.

The rims, with four holes, had a diameter of 14 inches and width of 6.5 inches. In spite of their lightness (5.8 kg) for each rim) as with all alloy wheels they had a higher rigidity than those of steel [lamiera]. This heightened the sporting characteristics of the steering [sterzo], guaranteeing more accurate driving. Campagnolo subjected them to the strictest controls. They examined (them) with X-rays for possible defects in the casting. They were then submitted to tests of fatigue on the bench and to tests of resistance on impact. Finally, they were immersed in a special penetrating liquid to show up the smallest imperfections that may have escaped the preceding controls.

Very large tyres for the time were adopted: 195/70 VR14. During the first tests of the car, specifically from the wide sections of the tyres and the high speeds achieved, driving in the wet revealed itself to be demanding. Frequently there was aquaplaning, a phenomenon almost unknown at that time. It could occur in the presence of pools [pozze] of water, especially if the speed was particularly high [sostenuta]. In this case aquaplaning caused the total lifting of the tyres from the ground, with consequent loss of control of the vehicle.

Bonini, one of the test drivers responsible for the development of the car, recalls: "Given the sporting characteristics of all of its models, Alfa decided to study thoroughly the phenomenon of aquaplaning and the Montreal was the first car involved in a cycle of specific tests. To carry out some tests I was taken to Germany, to Hannover, near the test track of Continental, specially equipped for the simulation of aquaplaning. The engineers of the German company producing the tyres, thanks to our collaboration, launched some new types of tread, responding to the requirements of fast and sporting driving in the wet."

In fact, as standard equipment for tyres, Alfa supplied for the Montreal, as an alternative to the Michelin X radial, the Continental TT714, both in the size 195/70.

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The Suspension

For the suspension we find the same layout [schema] (as) adopted in the Expo prototypes: independent front suspension at the front and rigid axle at the rear, similar to the most recent creation of Alfa in 1967, the 1750.

The front suspension connects the wheels to the body by means of transverse arms. Between the lower arms and the body are located the springs and telescopic shock absorbers.

A transverse anti-roll bar completes the suspension to improve the stability of the car in curves. Special [appositi] pads, fixed to the cross-member, limit the rotation both in height and in depth.

The whole of the rear axle is anchored laterally by two longitudinal arms. A "T" support, named triangle of transverse reaction [denominato triangolo di reazione trasversale], is located above the differential housing. Both the trailing arms [puntoni] and the triangle are hinged on the axle and on the body with flexible connections.

Completing the rear suspension: helicoid springs, hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers, coaxial to these springs; a transverse anti-roll bar, connected to the body and to the arms of the axle. The movement of the axle is limited on each side, on the top, by a rubber pad and below by a strap [bandello] of cloth and vulcanised rubber.

The adoption of this design of suspension aroused the criticism of specialist observers, who believed that a GT of the class of the Montreal was obliged to have the four wheels independent.

We hear, on this question, the opinion of Busso: "The choice of a live axle was a necessity, given that there was no other technical solution available at that time for production in quantity. It was nevertheless a fortunate [felice] conclusion to a not easy conversion, given that the rear drive train was of the same dimensions as that of the Giulia, but with more onerous work to perform, given the power of the V8".

During the development of the car the front track was taken from 1372 to 1374 mm, while that of the rear from 1328 to 1340 mm. The wheelbase [passo] remained that of the Giulia GT: 2350mm. As a result of the final tests the designers widened the track to make the car more "neutral" and therefore easier to control in curves.

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The Braking System

For the brakes of the Montreal the Alfa engineers introduced a special system of dual hydraulic circuits, given a brake servo and a brake modulator on the rear wheels. Four disk brakes, all ventilated and of generous dimensions, and four callipers [pinze] with dual pistons gave a guarantee of braking.

Emergency braking, included with normal braking (system), was achieved by the splitting of the brake circuit.

The handbrake, actuated by a central lever, worked [agiva] via expanding brake shoes acting on the internal surface of special drums placed at the inside of the rear disks.

On the publicity brochure, the Milanese company asserted: "The braking system also is not unfaithful to the Alfa tradition. The brakes guarantee powerful and precise braking not only in normal conditions of driving but also in extreme conditions. The efficiency of this system is based on the dimensions of the braking surface (for a total of 2742 cm2) on a structure of ventilated disk brakes."

The braking system, apparently adequate for the car, in fact did not reveal itself to (be worthy of) the heights of the name Alfa Romeo. The braking distance, especially during sporting driving, was too long.

The principle cause is the undersizing of the brake callipers. In this way, the extensive surface of the disks was rendered useless. Secondly, the system suffers from the lack of an adequate brake servo. If this had had a "body" of larger dimensions, the brakes would have been more effective. Probably the lack of space in the engine bay did not permit such an adaptation. In fact an alteration to the servo/master cylinder assembly [gruppo], introduced in 1973, improved the performance of the braking system only slightly.

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Driving and Steering [Guido e sterzo]

A final look at the mechanicals to observe the steering controls.

The steering box is of the recirculating ball type, made by Burman, and placed in a rearward and protected position. This is in compliance with the American safety standards of the time. The steering wheel is of three spokes and has an adjusting lever [leva di rinvio].

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The Thoughts of the Designers

Having analysed the car in all its parts, we listen to the thoughts of the designers of the Montreal. "During the initial 'success' ["vincente"], testified by the beautiful prototypes", recalls Gian Beppe Panicco, responsible for public relations [relazione esterno] for Bertone, "there followed on the part of Alfa Romeo hesitation and changes of mind which resulted in the "great beginning" ["grande inizio"] (being) transformed radically. The results were carried to the production of a car by then old, hybrid and distorted with respect to the original plan."

As already seen, the adaption to new mechanicals entailed stylistic review of the bodywork, elaborating [esasperando] some details, like the numerous chrome trims on the nose and the tail. We hear, on this question, the designer of the car: "The Montreal design", continues Gandini, "was a sporting car but with the intention, a least, (of being) rather elegant and rich [ricca]." The absence of chrome plating was still considered an unacceptable impoverishment. "The Montreal design", continues Gandini, "born very good in itself, to my thinking showed the influence of too much change and, if it is extremely difficult to render beautiful an ugly car, it is instead very easy to ruin the most beautiful of cars."

More than twenty years have passed, but the memory of the Montreal, as will be noted, is still alive. One thing is certain; the Montreal was neglected by Alfa Romeo, also because of the numerous changes of upper management which caused continuous uncertainty in the project.

At that time, moreover, Alfa was committed to a project very important for its future; in 1967 the development of the Alfetta, characterised by its sophisticated De Dion axle, got under way. To all this was added the work for the production of the Alfasud car and factory.

"The Montreal was for Alfa Romeo a digression, a lucky [felice] digression", maintains Busso, "taking advantage of the beautiful car of Bertone and the excellent engine of the 33. We succeeded in creating a reasonable [discreto] car but not the greatest from a technical point of view. We would willingly have equipped the Montreal with independent rear suspension or with the De Dion (rear) axle." "This was not possible", continues Busso, "because of shortages of time and money. The normal programs of Alfa already anticipated, in fact, the production of a new GT derived from the Alfetta, given also a De Dion axle. Therefore the decision to produce the car by Bertone was to be considered an isolated episode [episidio isolato]". For Bonini the Montreal was given a fantastic engine: "The engine was intentionally rendered docile [tranquillo] and flexible. It would have been able to supply easily 50-60 HP more. Unfortunately the choice to make the car very comfortable penalised the sporting properties [l'assetto sportivo]. It went out, therefore, as a true grand touring car."

Even if, according to Bonini, with the Montreal the limits of the use of the live axle were reached, with the exception of the braking system the car did not reveal particular flaws. The induction system [L'impiato di alimentazione] did not give any problems during the longest tests of the car. Only if its maintenance was entrusted to unskilled personnel were problems of carburation able to be encountered. Busso is particularly fond of the Montreal: the V8 that equipped the car was the best engine ever designed by his team. He would have gladly seen it installed in a car produced in a greater number of examples.

Therefore the Montreal is considered to be an unrepeatable car. It would be difficult to repeat such favourable circumstances as Expo and the availability of an engine as exceptional as that of the 33 Sports Prototype.

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p.46: The definitive chassis of the Montreal which used the floorpan and some of the mechanicals of the 1970 model 1750 GTV. The V8 engine, mounted longitudinally, was taken out to 2593 cc. To this was connected a new gearbox from ZF able to withstand all the 200 hp supplied by the engine. The tailshaft remained almost unchanged, while a limited slip differential was adopted. The suspension was that of the 1750 coupe: independent in front and a rigid axle behind. Other modifications concerned (increasing) the power of the braking system and the enlargement of the fuel tank.

p.47: To the side: the engine bay of the Montreal, characterised by a large air filter housing placed at the centre of the engine. Below, cross-section of the Montreal engine of eight cylinders in V formation of 90 degrees. Note the induction system of four overhead camshafts, the valves at a narrow V (48 degrees), the hemispherical combustion chamber, the inlet manifolds, outstretched and extended [tesi e prolungati], which from the bottom joined the air filter housing through eight inlet trumpets, and the injectors upstream from the inlet valves.

p.48: The ancillary drive [distribuzione] diagram: the twin camshafts for each bank were driven by chains positioned on the front of the engine block. The other two chains shown are those for driving the oil pump (at the bottom) and the main (one) which operated the gears (for the camshaft chains) [gli ingranaggi di rinvio della distribuzione].

p.49: To the side, the 33 Stradale of 1967. Alfa entrusted the task of designing its bodywork to Franco Scaglione, at that time a most able and skilled designer in the sector of aerodynamics applied to GTs of high performance. The bodywork, in aluminium, was built by Marazzi of Milan who had inherited the personnel and technology of Touring. Autodelta equipped the 18 production examples with the 2-litre engine of the 33, with power reduced to 230 HP DIN at 8,800 rpm. The output [capacita] of the engine provided [consentivano] exciting performance, as testified by the maximum speed of 260 km/hr.

p.49 (below): A view of the engine cover open on the 33 "Periscopa". The bodywork of the 33, of spider type, was built entirely in fibreglass. It was broken up into three parts: the centre, comprising the sides, and the front and rear panels. In the photo the intake trumpets of the injection system of the V8 are evident, the engine built thanks to the considerable contribution furnished by Carlo Chiti to the designers. On the 33 many technical solutions reflected the past experience of the engineer at Ferrari and at ATS.

p.50: In April 1967 Alfa Romeo sent to the Montreal Expo two prototypes built in collaboration with Carozzeria Bertone. They represented the foreshadowing of a new sporting model of high prestige, designed in order to be able to be produced in series and suitable to receive an engine of high performance. The images show the very high level of quality with which the prototype Montreals were built. The photo on the opposite page, at the top, shows the car which was used by Alfa, after the Expo, for the preliminary testing. One will observe the alloy wheels of larger section (those of the Guilia GTA) necessary for experimentation on the track and on the road.

p.52: The definitive sketch of the Montreal drawn by Marcello Gandini. Even if the first tests of the Montreal prototypes validated the quality of the initial design, the definitive bodywork was the result of the adaption to new mechanicals, more bulky than (the) previous. The hesitation and the changes of mind of Alfa Romeo affected, not always in a manner at all positive, the original design. Many details were made more elaborate [vennero esasperati], such as the many chrome mouldings of the nose and tail, besides the bonnet necessarily being made higher. One notes that in the sketch the rims of the wheels are not well defined: probably the definitive design of them had not yet been decided.

p.54: To the side, the body of the Montreal ready for painting. One observes the degree of finish carried out in a particularly thorough manner, with polishing by disk to correct the superficial imperfections produced during the preceeding operations. Above, a glimpse of the assembly line of the Montreal taken in the Bertone factory at Grugliasco. Parallel to this runs the line of the Fiat Dino coupe. After this the completed body was dispatched to Arese for the mounting of the mechanicals.

p.55: Above: a cut-away drawing of the production Montreal, showing the mechanical components: the powerful 8 cylinder engine, the classic Alfa Romeo suspension and the brakes with ventilated disks. To the side, a good shot of the engine. Its direct descent from the racing engine is clear: it reveals its extreme compactness, given also by the adoption of a dry sump system of lubrication. This system allowed the limitation of the height of the engine by the reduced dimensions of the sump.

p.56: After a year of testing, 1971 saw the Montreal finally presented to the market in the role of luxury grand tourer: it was always a costly car, with a selling price which was around then 5 million lire. Above, the Montreal portrayed in an advertising photo of the time, in which the backdrop was intended to place in prominence all the class and elegance of the new Alfa Romeo coupe.

p.57: The lubrication system was of the dry sump type with a separate oil tank. Above, the diagram of the lubrication circuit: the oil in the tank mounted in the engine bay, went to the pump which sent it, suitably filtered, to the crankshaft and from there to the camshafts and to the injection pump, where it lubricated the various moving parts. After this the oil was collected in the sump and from there sent, by means of the scavenging pump, to the tank, directly or crossing the oil cooler, the second (to control) the temperature of the thermostat. [Note from Malcolm - unlike many parts of the technical description, which are written in the present tense, this passage is written entirely in the Italian imperfect tense].

p.58: The Spica pump of the injection system: it was given eight small pistons arranged in line: to each one of these corresponded an injector placed in the inlet port of each cylinder. The pump measured out the fuel in relation to the position of the air inlet butterflies placed in the ducts.

p.59: The ignition system of the Montreal was of electronic capacitor discharge type. It proved to be [Si rivelo] particularly efficient on an engine which, as well as its considerable maximum power, was also able to supply low power [pochi cavalli] in perfect steadiness. The ignition module [centralina], made by Bosch with the frame in Elektron, was given fins for cooling.

p.61: On the opposite page, at the top, the cooling system of the engine, of closed circuit type with expansion tank. A pump, placed between the banks of the engine, ensured the circulation of the coolant, while an electric cooling fan, with thermostatic valve, was installed on the radiator. Below, the five speed gearbox made by ZF of Germany. Built [Dimensionato] to withstand all the power of the V8, it was characterised by a different shift pattern [allineamento delle marce] with respect to the traditional Alfa box. Below the diagram of the gearbox, a section (view) of the limited slip differential, adopted to improve the adhesion of the car in very tight corners.

p.62: In this page, two views of the live axle rear suspension. In the view in section note the longitudinal trailing arms, the shock absorbers coaxial with the springs, and the pads which, together with the straps, limited the movement in height of the (axle) beam. At the bottom are visible the stabilising bar and the triangle for transverse forces. On the opposite page, at the top, the front independent suspension. This connected the wheels to the body be means of transverse arms. Between the lower arms and the body were located the springs and the shock absorbers. Also the front suspension was given an anti-roll bar, to increase the stability of the car in corners. Below: the braking system with dual hydraulic circuits developed especially for the Montreal.

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