Southern Sky Watch

December Skies

Sorry for the delay, we have had a very sad time.

This month starts with 3 bright planets in the western evening sky. There will be some delightful planetary encounters this month. In December Mercury is in the “Teapot” of Sagittarius.

Useful info for visitors from New Zealand, South Africa and South America.

December 3; crescent Moon close to Venus. December 5; Moon close to Mars. December 7-8; Mercury close to Kaus Borealis, the star that defines the “lid” of the “teapot” of Sagittarius. December 11; Mars close to the bright star Deneb Algehdi. December 13; Moon at Perigee. December 13; Mercury is close to the star Nunki. December 14; Geminid meteor shower. December 23; crescent Moon close to Jupiter in the morning sky. December 25; Moon at Apogee. December 28; Venus close to the bright star Deneb Algehdi. December 28, Saturn close to the thin crescent Moon. December 31; Mars and Neptune close.

Looking up at the stars is still a rewarding pursuit, despite the increasing light pollution in our major cities. The southern sky is full of interesting objects, many of which go unseen in the northern hemisphere. All you need for a good nights viewing is yourself, a good idea of where south and east are, and your hands. Optional extras are a small pair of binoculars, a torch with red cellophane taped over the business end and a note book. A great many tips for backyard astronomy may be found here, although many of them are more relevant to the northern hemisphere. A general article on amateur astronomy from New Scientist is here (May require subscription otherwise see the TASS site.).

This page is designed to give people a simple guide to the unaided eye sky. In the descriptions of planet and star positions, distances in the sky are given as "fingers width" and "hand span". This is the width of your hand (with all the fingers together as in making a "stop" sign, not bunched as a fist) or finger when extended a full arms length from you.

[updatedAstroblog Updated astronews and images at Astroblog!] [Weekly Sky ] [Astronomy Media Player] [Aurora Alert! Updated 7/7/15] [Coming events and Updates updated updated for 2016] [Out in Space ] [ The Moon] [Planets] [Meteors] [ Comets ] [ Occultations ] [Eclipse ] [Variable Stars ] [Stars] [Star Maps] [Using the Maps] [Iridium Flares and the International Space Station pass predictions (via Heavens Above)] [Links ] [updatedCharts, Books and Software for Astronomy] [Celestia scripts and add-ons Gliese 581 [Previous Months] [Feedback] [Ian's Astrophotography gallery Animation of Jupiter] [Email alert service] [Images of past aurora]

Summer is here once more, and the beautiful constellations of Orion, Taurus and the magnificent rambling constellations of Carina, Puppis and Vela grace our skies again. The December school holidays will be an ideal time to head out somewhere dark and view the stars and planets at their best. Summer also means very long twilights in southern Australia, so you may have to wait to see these delights. Despite the warmth of the days, nights are often cool, so don't forget a light jumper before doing any extended star watching. A blanket or rug to sit on is a good idea. Some mosquito repellent will be a must.

While these pages are primarily intended for the use of people observing in Australia, non-Australian Southern Hemisphere observers will find most of the information here applies to them. The star information will be most helpful, when you correct your location for latitude (see the Stars section for appropriate location information). Most Moon phase, planet, comet and asteroid information will be very similar to what will be seen in New Zealand, South Africa and South America. Countries close to the equator (eg Indonesia) will have somewhat different southern and northern views, but the eastern and western views should be similar enough to get a good idea of what is going on.

Occultations, eclipses and aurora are highly location dependent, and it would be best to get a local almanac for these events. If there is no local almanac available, email me and I might be able to help you. I do try and give general info for occultations and eclipses in the Oceania area of the Southern Hemisphere.

Return to Menu

Aurora Alert UPDATED 03/10/16: Despite solar maximum having passed, we are still getting occasional good auroral displays. September 2016 saw a series of good but transient aurora in Tasmania and southern Victoria. July 2015 saw a massive storm seen as far north as mid NSW, again clouded out for large parts of Australia. 17-19/3/2015, the St. Patrick's Day aurora, massive storm seen as far north as Southern Queensland. Unfortunately clouded out for large parts of Australia. 26/2/2015, yet another good set of aurora were seen from Tasmania. 9/2/2015 There was a series of very good auroral events during January, some were seen in NSW, Victoria, SA and WA as well as Tasmania. Last year saw some nice events and a coronal mass ejection from an M class flare hit us square on on March 17 2013. Aurora were detected as far north as the QLD border, with some really nice events in Tasmania, and here are some images from that event. The Sun is now at solar maximum, but has been rather quite so far apart from the odd event like the 17 March 2013 one and the 22 February 2014 and the January 2015 events (and of course the St. Patrick's Day Storm). Although we should be exiting solar maximum in 2016 we may see more aurora in the near future.

Auroral images and descriptions from past geomagnetic storms are now at the auroral image web page.

We are now at the tail end of solar maximum in 2016, and we can expect to see a reducing frequency of aurora. There have been some good displays in Tasmania recently (the St. Patrick's Day storm was a beauty, see as far north as NSW). Tasmania, King Island and Southern Victoria are the most likely places to see aurora. However, on September 24, 2005 there was a massive auroral storm seen as far as northern NSW (and the 22 February 2014 one was seen as far north as southern NSW). Naturally, the best views of any aurora will be away from the city and bright lights. Aurora occur when charged particles from the solar wind enter Earths outer atmosphere and interact with the oxygen and nitrogen atoms producing eerie displays of coloured lights. During solar maximum, which occurs every 11 years, the number and speed of the particles are higher, allowing them to penetrate the Earth's magnetic field at lower latitudes than normal. Observers in Tasmania are likely to see green glows or sheets of light in the southern sky. Observers in Southern Victoria are more likely to see a red glow in the southern sky, although more spectacular displays are possible.

The Astronomical Society of Tasmania has a webpage devoted to this phenomenon. The Australian IPS radio and space services covers Aurora and related phenomena in very great detail (too much if you don't know much about them) but has a nice education page. Flinders Uni also has real time magnetometer readings, however, this will probably not mean much to most people.

Aurora will generally follow solar flares by about 2 days, and a number of instruments are watching the sun for these outbursts. The solar minimum occurred in 2006 and persisted for some time. While sunspot numbers, and hence flare rates are increasing, sometimes months will go by without an alert, then you have three in a week. The space weather site at gives notice of when solar winds likely to cause aurora will arrive. Alternatively, send an email to with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject and I will send you an email alert of any likely auroral event (or other interesting sky phenomena). However, even a strong solar flare is no guarantee that you will be able to see aurora, but it does increase the probability. Still more alternatively, there are the facebook pages Aurora Australis Tasmania, Aurora Australis Tasmania NOW! and Aurora Australis all do discussions and alerts.

Return to Menu

Email alerts I try to update this page fairly regularly outside of the monthly postings. However sometimes things happen which I can't get in fast enough, or you forget to mark your calendar. If you would like to be alerted to or reminded of interesting astronomical or sky phenomena, send an email to with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject. This is the old aurora alert list, but with auroras rare even though we are at solar maximum (except for the occasional humdinger, like the September 2005 auroral event), it is doing double duty. Astroblog will have images when possible of these events soon after.

Return to Menu

Coming events

1 January 2016; Moon Near Jupiter

4 January 2016; crescent Moon near Mars

7 January 2016; crescent Moon near Venus and Saturn

9 January 2016; Saturn and Venus at their closest

23-30 January 2016; All five bright planets visible in the morning sky, the first time since January 2005

27-28 January 2016; Moon Near Jupiter

1-22 February 2016; All five bright planets visible in the morning sky

February 25; Occultation of Zavijava (Beta Virginis) in the morning.

2 February 2016; Moon Near Mars

4 February 2016; Moon near Saturn

6-7 February 2016; Moon Near Venus and Mercury

24 February 2016; Moon Near Jupiter

1 March 2016; Moon close to Mars

3 March 2016; Moon close to Saturn

7 March 2016; Moon close to Venus

8 March 2016; Moon close to Mercury

8 March 2016; Opposition of Jupiter

9 March 2016; Partial eclipse of the Sun, northern Australia only

22 March 2016; Moon close to Jupiter

23 March 2016; Penumbral eclipse of Moon

28 March 2016; Moon close to Mars

29 March 2016; Moon close to Saturn

6 April 2016; Moon close to Venus

18 April 2016; Moon close to Jupiter

25 April 2016; Moon, Mars, Saturn and Antares close

27 April 2016; Mars and Antares closest

6 May 2016; Eta Aquariid meteor shower.

6 May 2016; Moon and Venus close together.

15 May 2016; Moon close to Jupiter.

22 May 2016; Opposition of Mars.

22 May 2016; Moon close to Saturn, Mars and Antares.

3 June 2016; Opposition of Saturn.

3 June 2016; Moon and Mercury close.

4-25 June 2016; Comet C/2013 X1 PANSTARRS potentially visible in binoculars.

11 June 2016; Moon and Jupiter close.

17 June 2016; Moon and Mars close.

19 June 2016; Moon and Saturn close.

9 July 2016; Jupiter and crescent Moon very close.

14-15 July 2016; Mars and Moon close.

16 July 2016; Moon and Saturn close.

17 July 2016; Venus are Mercury very close, low in the twilight.

30 July 2016; Southen Delta Aquarids meteor shower.

31 July 2016; Mercury close to star Regulus.

4 August 2016; Crescent Moon close to Venus and Regulus.

5 August 2016; Crescent Moon close to Mercury.

6 August 2016; Jupiter and Crescent Moon close.

12 August 2016; Saturn and Moon close, with Mars nearby.

24 August 2016; Mars and Antares close, with Saturn nearby.

27-28 August 2016; Venus and Jupiter spectacularly close, Mercury nearby.

3 September 2016; Crescent Moon close to Venus, Jupiter and Mercury.

9 September 2016; Moon forms triangle with Mars and Saturn.

17 September 2016; Penumbral eclipse of the Moon.

22 September 2016; Moon close to star Aldebaran.

29 September 2016; Moon and Mercury close.

3-4 October 2016; Venus the Crescent Moon close.

6 October 2016; Crescent Moon close to Saturn.

8 October 2016; Mars close to Moon.

9-10 October 2016; Mars close to Globular Cluster M22.

22 October 2016; Orionid meteor shower.

28 October 2016; Venus, Antares and Saturn form a line.

28 October 2016; Crescent Moon close to Jupiter.

3 November 2016; Venus and Saturn at close to crescent Moon.

6 November 2016; Moon close to Mars.

8 November 2016; Mars close to globular cluster M75.

17 November 2016; Leonid Meteor Shower.

20 November 2016; Venus close to Globular Cluster M22.

25 November 2016; Crescent Moon close to Jupiter.

1 December 2016; Crescent Moon close to Mercury.

3 December 2016; Crescent Moon close to Venus.

5 December 2016; Moon close to Mars.

15 December 2016; Geminid Meteor shower.

19 December 2016; Occultation of Regulus.

23 December 2016; Waning Moon close to Jupiter.

28 December 2016; Crescent Moon close to Saturn.

31 December 2016; Comet 45P potentially visible in binoculars.

Out in Space

Cassini sees dramatic seasonal changes on Titan.

Mars Curiosity Rover begins its next chapter on Mars.

Mars Express sees buried glaciers.

The Mars Reconaissance Orbiter finds finds some lakes formed later than others.

Dawn finds ice in Oxo crater.

New Horizons finds clouds on Pluto.

Return to Menu

The Moon:

Current Phase of the Moon.
This is a JavaScript applet kindly supplied by Darren Osbourne. It shows the Moon as Southern Hemisphere viewers see it, and is upside down from the Northern Hemisphere perspective.

C| First quarter on the 7th
O Full moon on the 14th
D Last quarter on the 21st
O New Moon is on the 29th

December 3; crescent Moon close to Venus. December 5; Moon close to Mars. December 13; Moon at Perigee. December 14; Geminid meteor shower. December 23; crescent Moon close to Jupiter in the morning sky. December 25; Moon at Apogee. December 28, Saturn close to the thin crescent Moon.

An interactive calendar of the Moon's phases.

A view of the phase of the Moon for any date from 1800 A.D. to 2199, US based, so that the Moon is upside down with respect to us. The image above is from this source.

The phases of the Moon have been linked in the popular imagination to activities as diverse as madness and menstruation. However, careful study has shown that there are no such links. This web page outlines how the Moon is unconnected with a wide range of human activities.

Return to Menu


Finding planets, even with the directions below, can sometimes be difficult if you are unfamiliar with the sky. However, the Moon is very obvious, and can be a guide to location of planets. Not only that, the combination of the Moon and bright planet(s) is often very beautiful. Thus the guide below gives the dates when the planets and the Moon are close together.
evening sky, 10:00 pm

The evening sky facing west in Melbourne on December 3 at 40 minutes after sunset showing the Moon close to Venus. (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg December 3 at 40 minutes after sunset Adelaide).

evening sky, 8:34 pm

The evening sky facing west in Melbourne on December 7 at half an hour after sunset showing SMercury close to Kaus Borealis with Venus above. (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg half an hour after sunset in Adelaide.

morning sky, 4:53 am pm

The eastern morning sky on December 23 an hour before sunrise showing Jupiter and the crescent Moon. similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time.

Mercury is in the evening sky this month. On the 1st, Mercury is just under two hand-spans above the western horizon half an hour after sunset. On the 7th Mercury is close to Kaus Borealis. On the 13th Mercury is close to the star Nunki. On the 15th Mercury is one and a half hand-spans above the western horizon an hour after sunset. By the 30th, Mercury is lost in the twilight.

Venus is prominent in the evening sky in this month and is extremely obvious as its startling white light makes it the brightest object in the western sky (aside from the Sun and Moon of course). On the 1st Venus is just under a three hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. Venus climbs out of Sagittarius into Capricornus. On the evening of December 3 thin crescent Moon is a hand span from Venus. On December 15 Venus is over two hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On the 28th Venus is close to the bright star Deneb Algedi.On the 30th Venus is just over three hand-spans above the western horizon an hour after sunset.

Earth is at solstice on Wednesday the 21st, when the day is longest. >

Mars was at Opposition in May, when it was biggest and brightest as seen from Earth. It is still a small but recognisable disk in small amateur instruments, but they will not show much detail. Mars starts in Capricornus then moves to Aquarius this month. It has faded substantially and may be difficult to recognise. However, it is the brightest reddish object almost due west in an area otherwise devoid of bright stars. On the 31st Mars and Neptune are less than a finger-width apart. You will need binoculars and dark skies, or a telescope, to see the pair together. In binoculars Neptune will be little more than a dim dot unfortunately. On January 1 the pair are only 7 arc-minutes apart, and will be nice in high power telescopes.

On December 1 Mars is is five hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On December 5 the waxing crescent Moon and Mars are at their closest. On December 15 Mars is four hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. By the 30th, Mars is just over three hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset.

Jupiter is rising higher in the dawn during the month, and is now quite easy to see in the dawn skies. On December 1, Jupiter is nearly three hand-spans above the eastern horizon an hour before sunrise. On December 15,Jupiter is over a four hand-spans above the eastern horizon an hour before sunrise. On December 23,Jupiter is just under hand-span above the waning crescent Moon. On December 30,Jupiter is just over six hand-spans above the eastern horizon an hour before sunrise.

In either binoculars or a telescope Jupiter's Moons are always interesting. Jupiter is now be high enough from the horizon for good viewing before twilight.

This table was created using The Planets 2.02 a free program available from

Times are AEST, subtract 30 minutes for ACST and 3 hours for AWST. Add one hour for Daylight Saving time.
GRS = Great Red Spot. S = Shadow Transit, T = Transit

Sat	3	Dec	2016	4:58	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Mon	5	Dec	2016	3:36	Io :	Disappears into Eclipse
Tue	6	Dec	2016	4:08	Io :	Transit Ends
Wed	7	Dec	2016	3:56	Eur:	Transit Begins               ST
Wed	7	Dec	2016	4:24	Eur:	Shadow Transit Ends          T
Thu	8	Dec	2016	4:07	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Sat	10	Dec	2016	5:46	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Sun	11	Dec	2016	4:41	Gan:	Disappears into Occultation
Mon	12	Dec	2016	5:29	Io :	Disappears into Eclipse
Tue	13	Dec	2016	3:16	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Tue	13	Dec	2016	3:53	Io :	Transit Begins               ST
Tue	13	Dec	2016	5:00	Io :	Shadow Transit Ends          T
Wed	14	Dec	2016	3:14	Io :	Reappears from Occultation
Wed	14	Dec	2016	4:24	Eur:	Shadow Transit Begins        S
Thu	15	Dec	2016	4:54	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Fri	16	Dec	2016	4:10	Eur:	Reappears from Occultation
Sun	18	Dec	2016	4:11	Gan:	Disappears into Eclipse
Tue	20	Dec	2016	4:03	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Tue	20	Dec	2016	4:40	Io :	Shadow Transit Begins        S
Tue	20	Dec	2016	5:50	Io :	Transit Begins               ST
Wed	21	Dec	2016	5:10	Io :	Reappears from Occultation
Thu	22	Dec	2016	2:31	Io :	Transit Ends
Thu	22	Dec	2016	5:42	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Sun	25	Dec	2016	3:12	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Tue	27	Dec	2016	4:50	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Wed	28	Dec	2016	3:43	Io :	Disappears into Eclipse
Thu	29	Dec	2016	2:14	Io :	Transit Begins               ST
Thu	29	Dec	2016	3:01	Gan:	Transit Begins               STT
Thu	29	Dec	2016	3:15	Io :	Shadow Transit Ends          TT
Thu	29	Dec	2016	4:26	Io :	Transit Ends                 T
Thu	29	Dec	2016	5:22	Gan:	Transit Ends
Fri	30	Dec	2016	2:20	GRS:	Crosses Central Meridian
Fri	30	Dec	2016	4:34	Eur:	Disappears into Eclipse

Saturn is too close to the Sun for most of the month to observe. On December 28 Saturn is close to the thing crescent moon, and is just under a hand-span above the eastern horizon half and hour before sunrise. You will need a fairly level, unobstructed eastern horizon to see this.

Return to Menu

Iridium Flares, the International Space Station and other satellites

See this amazing site for images of the space station taken through a telescope.

Iridium flares add a bit of spectacle to the night sky. The Iridium satellite network was set up to give global phone coverage, so an Iridium satellite is almost always over head. Occasionally, one of the antenna of the satellites is aligned so that it reflects the sun towards an observer, giving a brilliant flare, often out-shining Venus. However, the visibility of Iridium flares is VERY dependent on observer position, so you need a prediction for your spot within about 30 km. Hence I'm referring you to a web site for predictions rather than doing it myself.

new See an Iridium Flare at your Location. Courtesy of Heavens above. Choose your location from the drop down box

Or type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg Darwin is -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.
Latitude: Longitude: City Time Zone:

See the International Space Station at your Location. Courtesy of Heavens above. Choose your location from the drop down box

Or type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg Darwin is -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.
Latitude: Longitude: City Time Zone:
Another site, JPASS, doesn't do Iridium flares, but is very cool and does the International Space Station, and many other satellites. However, although the output is flashy, it's harder to use than heavens above.

Return to Menu

Meteor showers:

Date        	Meteor Shower       ZHR  Illumination 
 7/12/2016  Puppids-Velids      10    0.05          
14/12/2016  Geminids            120    0.95        
22/12/2016  Ursids               10    0.50         

The figure ZHR is zenithal hourly rate. This is the number of meteors that a single observer would see per hour if the shower's "point of origin", or radiant, were at the zenith and the sky were dark enough for 6.5-magnitude stars to be visible to the naked eye. Illumination gives an idea of how dark the sky is, the lower the figure, the darker the sky.

The Puppids-Velids are a modest southern meteor shower (roughly a meteor every four minutes) that doesn't require you getting up too late to see, although meteors are always best in the early morning. At midnight, AEDST (11.00 pm AEST) the radiant is 9 hand-spans up from, and 6 hand-spans to the left of, due east. This is roughly a hand-span below and to the left of the False Cross. A spotters map is here.

morning sky, 3:00 am

Geminid radiant seen facing north in the southern Hemisphere at 4:00 am daylight saving time, December 14.

The Geminids are a fairly reliable meteor shower, with rates of about a meteor per minute at their best. This is a dad year for Geminids, as the full Moon almost on top of the meteor radiant rises. The radiant doesn't rise until just before midnight (daylight saving time) in most of Australia, so you will have to disturb your sleep for this one. At 1.00 am in the morning AEDST (midnight, AEST) Castor (alpha Geminorum) is about two hand-spans above the horizon and 10 hand-spans to the left of due north. Pollux, the other twin, is less than a hand-span to the left again. The radiant is just below Castor. A spotters map is here. Unlike the Leonids, where there is a very narrow peak of high activity, the Geminids have a broad peak and will normally show good activity well before and after the peak, and on the day before and after, but this year the Moon's interference is too great. Australians should see a meteor every six minutes under dark skies in the early morning of the 14th, between 2:00 am and 4:00 am.

Outside of the showers, you can still see sporadic meteors. Rates seen from the Southern Hemisphere are around 6 random meteors being seen per hour during the late morning hours and 2 per hour during the evening. The evening rates will be reduced during the times around the full Moon due to interference by the Moons light.

A good page describing meteor watching is at the Sky Publications site.

The Meteor Section of the Astronomical Society of Victoria has some good information on meteor watching too.

Learn how to take a meteor shower photograph.

A Cool Fact about meteor speeds

A good page on detecting meteors using home made radio-telescopes is here.

Return to Menu


There are no unaided eye comets visible at the moment.

A list of current comet ephemerides is at the MPC.

Return to Menu


No interesting naked-eye occultations this month.



No significant eclipses this month.

Find local sunrise/sunset and twilight times for your city or location (courtesy of Heavens Above).
Use either the drop down box for the listed cities, or type in your latitude, longitude and city in the boxes below.

Type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.

Latitude: Longitude: City Time Zone:


Variable Stars:

While most stars seem to shine with a constant brightness, there are some that undergo regular, dramatic change in brightness. The classic variables are Mira and Algol. Mira and is currently unobservable.

evening sky, 1:00 am

Algol at 11:00 pm AEDST on 15 December.

Algol is another classic variable star, but is usually hard to see from the southern hemisphere. This month we have no chances to see Algol dim and brighten under reasonable circumstances (Times AEDST).

Return to Menu


evening sky, 10:00 pm

The southern evening sky at 10:00 pm AEST in Melbourne on December 1 (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg 10:00 pm ACST Adelaide).

All descriptions here are based on the view from Melbourne at 10.00 pm AEST (Australian Eastern Standard Time) on 1 December and assumes a fairly level horizon. Starset occurs progressively earlier each day, so these descriptions are valid for 9.00 pm on the 15th and 8.00pm on the 30th. Readers from other time zones should see roughly the same views at 10.00 pm local time. Corrections for cities other than Melbourne are given below.

How do I find east, west, north and south?

Facing east, the faint constellation of Monocerous (the Unicorn) is just on the horizon.

At around three hand-spans from the eastern horizon are the constellations of Taurus, the bull, Orion the hunter and Canis major, Orion's hunting dog. Three hands-pans left of due east is the distinctive saucepan shape of Orion's belt. The handle of the saucepan is Orion's sword, which contains some good naked eye open clusters, and the final star in the handle hosts the famous Orion nebula, which is visible to the naked eye under clear skies. Directly above the handle of the saucepan is bright Rigel (beta Orionis). Directly below the saucepan is the bright reddish Betelgeuse (alpha Orinonis), a red giant star.

To the left of Orion's belt by about 4 hand-spans is Aldebaran (alpha Tauri), another red giant which forms the base of the V shaped group of stars called the Hyades, which forms the head of Taurus. Further to the left again by about two hand-spans is a faint, but pretty, compact cluster of stars called the Pleiades (the seven sisters, even though eight can be seen on a dark night with good eyesight). The Pleiades are particularly beautiful through binoculars.

To the right of Orion's belt by about 4 hand-spans is the bright white star Sirius (alpha Canis Majoris), the brightest star in the sky. The constellation of Canis Majoris has a number of open clusters that are well worth exploring with binoculars.

About 6 hand-spans up from due east is the small constellation of Lepus, the Hare.

Above this again, is the faint constellation of Eridanus, the river, which starts near bright Rigel and meanders upwards and southwards to where its brightest star, Achernar, points to the small Magellanic cloud.

Continuing on to the zenith we find the faint constellations Sculptor and Phoenix.

Due west, bright Fomalhaut, alpha star of Piscis Austrinus is 5 hand-spans below the Zenith (and 12 hand-spans above the western horizon). Three hand-spans to the left of Fomalhaut is Grus, the crane, with a distinctive, battered cross-like shape.

About five hand-spans down from Fomalhaut is the battered triangle of Capricornius, the Water Goat, currently hosting Uranus and Neptune. Of interest as well is alpha Capricornii, (eight hand-spans below Fomalhaut and 4 hand-spans from the horizon) the brightish star at bottom left hand corner of the triangle that is Capricorn. This is a naked eye double star.

Returning to the Zenith and working towards the northern horizon; five hand spans below the zenith (and 12 hand-spans from the northern horizon) is Cetus, the whale, which stretches down and right. Beta Ceti is a modestly bright star 4 hand-spans below and a hand-span left of the zenith, the rest of Cetus is relatively faint. Mira, Omicron Ceti (O on the maps) is a variable star with a period of about 332 days. Mira is currently around magnitude 5.0 and is start brightening for a maximum in late December.

Cetus also hosts a nearby sun like star. Tau Ceti is 11.4 light years away from earth, looking 12 hand-spans up from east and three to the left is magnitude 2 Deneb Kaitos, beta Ceti. Two hand-spans below and slightly to the left is eta Ceti, two hand-spans to the right of eta Ceti, forming a triangle with eta and beta, is Tau Ceti.

Three hand-spans below Cetus is Pisces, a rather nondescript constellation, despite its importance in the Zodiac.

Continuing down Mirach (beta Andromedae) is 14 hand-spans from the zenith, and three hand-spans from the northern horizon. One hand-span below and half a hand-span to the left of Mirach is the Andromeda galaxy (also 1 hand-span to the left of due north and two above the horizon), one of the local group of galaxies and very similar to our own, at magnitude 3.2 it should be easily visible to the naked eye under dark skies as a fuzzy star. The binocular view should be excellent.

A hand-span to the right and a hand-span up from Mirach is M33, the pinwheel galaxy, also a member of the local group. At magnitude 5.7 and relatively close to the horizon, this galaxy is a challenge to see with the naked eye, but is easily found in small binoculars.

To the left of Mirach by two hand-spans, and up by one is Alpheratz, (alpha Andromedae) the bottom right hand star of the "great square" of the constellation Pegasus, the winged horse. The stars that make distinctive box shape of the main constellation lies around three hand-spans to the left of and up from (and 4 across from) Alpheratz.

Now return to the zenith and go South. Directly south by four hand-spans and slightly to the left is Achernar, alpha Eridanus.

Directly south again by about three hand-spans is the Small Magellanic cloud, the second largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies to the Milky Way. This feature is best viewed on a dark night, away from the city. In this nebulosity is what looks to be a fuzzy star, this is 47 Tucana (marked 104 on the map), a spectacular globular cluster that is very nice through binoculars. To the right of the Small Magellanic Cloud by about 4 hand-spans is the dim constellation of Tucana, the Toucan, the parent constellation of 47 Tucana.

A hand-span further down and three to the left is the extended nebulosity of the Large Magellanic cloud, the largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies. Binoculars will reveal a rather attractive nebula near it, the Tarantula nebula.

Continuing directly down from the Magellanic cloud by about 3 hand-spans (about 6 from Achernar) and about one hand-span right is Octans, the octant (a navigating instrument the was the forerunner of the sextant). Octans houses the south celestial pole, and the faint Sigma Octanis, the South Polar star, which is the southern equivalent of Polaris. At magnitude 5.5 you will be stretched to see it under city conditions, but it is six hand-spans below and slightly to the left of Achernar, forming the right angle of a triangle with two other faint stars (tau and chi Octanis).

Slightly below and to the right of Octans by around one hand-span is the faint Chameleon, a narrow "kite" of four stars with the long axis nearly parallel to the horizon.

Moving down by another two hand-spans is Musca, the fly, and to the right of that by around three hand-spans is Triangulum. Directly below triangulum are the bright, distinctive alpha and beta Centauri, the so called "pointers", two hand-spans from the southern horizon, with alpha being the yellow star which is furthest from the horizon, and beta the blue white star below and to the left. Most of the rest of Centarus, the Centaur, is too close to, or below, the Horizon to be seen properly.

Alpha Centauri is the closest star to our sun at around 4 light years. However, recent measurements with the Hippacaros satellite put the system 300 million kilometres further away than previously thought. Alpha Centauri is actually a triple star, consisting of two sun-like stars and a red dwarf, Proxima Centauri, which is the closest of the triple stars to earth.

Returning to alpha Centauri, following a line south through the "pointers" brings you to the Southern Cross, one and a half hand-spans from beta Centauri to beta Crucis, and one hand-span above the horizon between the 6 o'clock and 7 o'clock position on a clock. A high definition map of Centaurus and Crux is here.

The Southern Cross is, as expected, a cross shaped formation with Acrux (alpha Crucis) and gamma Crucis forming the long axis of the cross (pointing down to the south-west, with bright Acrux on the end of the axis away from the horizon). Beta and delta Crucis, now nearly horizontal, form the cross piece of the cross. Just to the right Acrux is the coal sack. This dark area against the glow of the Milky Way represents a large dust cloud and is usually clearly visible in dark skies, but will be hard to see this close to the horizon. The Jewel box in the Cross is a small open cluster just above Beta Crucis. It is quite beautiful, but requires strong binoculars or a small telescope to see properly, and is unlikely to be good viewing this close to the horizon.

Rising above the south-eastern horizon, to the left of due south is Carina (the keel of the former constellation Argo Navis). A high definition map of this region is here. It is now far enough from the horizon to appreciate its many faint objects. Looking almost anywhere in the area of Carina will reveal an interesting cluster or star formation. However, the area between the Southern Cross and the false cross (which is just above the south-eastern horizon), is particularly rich. Here you will find the "Southern Pleiades" surrounding the tail star (Theta Carina) of a prominent kite shaped group of stars, with theta Carina one hand-span up, and two hand-spans to the left of Acrux. Smaller and less spectacular than their northern counterparts, they still look very nice in binoculars. Four finger-widths below the Southern Pleiades are two rich open clusters, and the barely visible star Eta Carina. Eta Carina's spectacular nebula is only dimly seen in binoculars. Five hand-spans to the left of the Southern Cross is the False Cross, three hand-spans from the southern horizon. Just to the left of the False Cross is a good open cluster, normally just visible to the naked eye but hard to see this close to the horizon. Still very nice in binoculars though. Canopus (alpha Carina) is a bright yellowish star sitting seven hand-spans above the south-eastern horizon (and about 4 hand-spans along and up from the False Cross.

Vela and Puppis (to the left and below Carina respectively) are also beginning to clear the horizon, and in the coming weeks their collection of clusters will be more apparent.

Return to Menu

Sky Maps

How to use the maps

      map viewsky view

Comparison of a section of a skymap showing the Southern Cross (Crux) and pointers, with the appearance of the night sky. The map and sky are for December 1 at 10.00 pm, facing south. Both show approximately 30 degrees (5 hand-spans) of sky just above the horizon

The maps look a little busy, as they cover all sky from horizon to zenith. The grid lines are navigational helpers; each horizontal or vertical line covers 30 degrees of arc (the gridlines in the illustration show 15 degrees of arc), which is roughly five hand-spans (where a hand-span is the width of your hand, held flat light a "stop" sign at arms length). As you can see from the way the lines bunch up. The map is a little distorted, due to trying to project a spherical surface on a flat surface. The horizon is the lowest curved line on the map (for technical software reasons I can't block things out below the Horizon). Constellations are linked by lines and their names are in italics. Stars are shown as circles of varying size, the bigger the circle the brighter the star. The stars are named with their Bayer letter (eg a - alpha, the brightest star in a constellation, a Crucis is the brightest star in Crux). Variable stars are shown as hollow circles, double stars are marked with a line (eg a, b and g Crucis are all double stars, that look quite beautiful in a small telescope). Clusters and Nebula brighter than magnitude 6.0 are marked as broken circles (eg. the Jewel box cluster next to b Crucis above which is best viewed in binoculars or a telescope) and squares respectively. To find Crux for example, locate Crux on the appropriate map (eg. see the illustration above). Holding the Map, face either east or west (depending on the map), then use the grid lines to determine how far over and up you should look, then look for the Crux pattern in that part of the Sky.

GIF Maps

A view of the Eastern December sky at 10.00pm AEST on 1 December can be downloaded here (decsky_e.png 30 Kb) and a view of the western December sky can be downloaded here (decsky_w.png 30 Kb). These are more compact files but don't have a lot of resolution.

PDF Maps

High Resolution PDF files can be obtained for the eastern (110 Kb) and the western (110 Kb) horizon maps.

The Zenith Map (110 Kb) shows you the whole sky. You will need to face the one of the compass points, then hold the map with the appropriate compass point on the map at the bottom of the page.

You will need a PDF viewer such as Adobe Acrobat or GhostView to view and print them. They look slightly worse on-screen than the PNG files, but print much better and come with legends.

Return to Menu

[December Skies] [January Skies] [February Skies] [March Skies] [April Skies] [May Skies]

[June Skies] [July Skies] [August Skies] [September Skies] [October Skies] [November Skies]

Return to Menu

Cheers! And good star gazing!


Ian's Astrophotography Gallery

Some of the photographs/images I have taken in recent years of astronomical phenomena that may be of interest.

Return to Menu


Societies: Australian Resources: Australian Planetariums: updated Astronomy for Kids International Resources: Stunning sites: Useful programs:
Return to Menu

Charts, Books and Software for Astronomy

If you would like to have charts available all the time, rather than relying on mine, for between $2-$20 you can pick up a planisphere from a newsagent or bookshop (or for a bit more you can get fancy ones from Australian Geographic, the ABC shop or the other Australian Geographic look alike shop, or the Wilderness Society, or even a binocular/ optical store). The planisphere won't give you position of the planets, so you will need to get the planet rise/set times. These can be found in most serious newspapers (the Age, the Australian, SMH etc. The Australian is probably the best bet for budding amateurs). The combination of planisphere and rise/set times is the best value for beginners though, if you are not too worried about identifying star clusters in your binoculars.

Touring the Universe through Binoculars Atlas is now freeware it can print observing charts, but has a few annoying quirks. These include having no horizon line, and moving about is a bit irritating.

I use a combination of a 1962 star chart, the Australian Astronomy 2016 almanac and SkyMap Pro 11.0 . I highly recommend the Australian Astronomy 2017 almanac. It is more helpful for planetary/comet/asteroidal observations and eclipses than for double stars, clusters galaxies etc, but is an excellent resource for Australian observers and anyone who would like to seriously follow the planets in Australia should have this almanac. It has easy to follow month-by-month summary information, as well as detailed charts, tables and whole sky maps. It is easily navigated. The Almanac is often in big bookstores or optical shops, or email to purchase a copy directly for those outside major population centres. The Australian Astronomy almanac comes out in around November for the following year, and is now approx $28.

Sky and Telescope now also do an Australian version of their magazine.

For detailed chart drawing and timing of events, as well as satellite track predictions I feed the information from the almanac into the $150 AUD SkyMap Pro 11.0 , planetarium program. This is a very handy program which prints maps of every possible orientation and scale. The maps on this page are produced by SkyMap. An update to SkyMap 12.0 which handles Windows 10 is now available.

A shareware version of SkyMap that runs on windows 3.x, and win95 can be found here this is approximately 640 Kb zipped.

A shareware version of the win95 only version 5.0 is here

Other highly recommended Sky charting packages (win95/98/2000/XP/Win7-8 sorry) are:
Cartes du Ciel at (FREE) a bit messy to install but very good.
Stellarium at (FREE) stunning photorealistic program, but requires a grunty PC.
TheSkyVarious packages from $49 US to $249 US
Stary Night various versions from $49 us for the basic pack (10 day trial of the basic pack at up.
Earth Centered Universe $88 AUD (shareware version at
On the other hand a standard Sky Atlas for serious observing (much handier than carting a computer with you) such as Norton's Star Atlas can range from $35 to $90.

In these days of hand-held devices (smart phones and tablets), there is a plethora of sky charting apps you can take into the field with you. I use GoogleSky for android and a cut down version of Stellarium for iPad, my most used hand-held app is Heavens Above for Android, for watching Iridium flares and ISS passes. This is one app that has changed my astronomical life. There are many more, many free or less than 1 AUD to dowload. Celestron has a great free planetarium app (although big at 154 Mb) for Android, iPhone and iPad, SkyPortal.

This is not meant to be a product endorsement of any kind (outside of the Australian Astronomy 2017 almanac. For any budding astronomers out there, it is fantastic value and no, I don't have any commercial interest in it, but I did win bronze in their website Olympics).

Return to Menu

Link to the Lab's 'In Space' gateway Link to the Lab's home page
Return to Menu

This page is provided by Ian Musgrave and is © copyright 2016 Ian Musgrave, except the "Southern Sky Watch" logo, as well as any other ABC logo used on this page, is © copyright of the ABC. Sky maps are generated with SkyMap Pro 11.0 .

This page can be used freely for any non-commercial purpose but please attribute it correctly. However, see the disclaimer.

* Email: e-mail Ian with any suggestions
Created: Wednesday, 1 April 1998, 11:22:13 PM
Last Updated: Monday, 19 December 2016, 11:30:13 PM

Locations of visitors to this page
Where are visitors to this page?
(Auto-update daily since 27-August-05)
Return to Menu