The planetary action is moving back to the evening skies, Jupiter is at opposition and Saturn is just past opposition. Mercury is still prominent in the first half of the month. Venus is lost to view this month.
Saturn, Jupiter and Mars are still visible in the morning skies, though Saturn is progressively harder to see. Useful info for visitors from New Zealand, South Africa and South America.
September 1-3; Mars between Pleiades and the red star Aldebaran, forming a second eye for Taurus the Bull. September 4; First Quarter Moon. September 8; perigee Moon. September 8; Saturn and waxing Moon close. September 11; Full Moon. September 11; the Full Moon close to Jupiter (2° away). September 18; Last Quarter Moon. September 17; Mars close to waning moon. September 20; apogee Moon. September 23; Earth at Equinox. September 26; New Moon. September 27; Jupiter at opposition, when it is biggest and brightest as seen from Earth.
Looking up at the stars is still a rewarding pursuit, despite the increasing light pollution in our major cities. The southern sky is full of interesting objects, many of which go unseen in the northern hemisphere. All you need for a good nights viewing is yourself, a good idea of where south and east are, and your hands. Optional extras are a small pair of binoculars, a torch with red cellophane taped over the business end and a note book. A great many tips for backyard astronomy may be found here, although many of them are more relevant to the northern hemisphere. A general article on amateur astronomy from New Scientist is here (may require subscription otherwise see the TASS site.).
This page is designed to give people a simple guide to the unaided eye sky. In the descriptions of planet and star positions, distances in the sky are given as "fingers width" and "hand span". This is the width of your hand (with all the fingers together as in making a "stop" sign, not bunched as a fist) or finger when extended a full arms length from you.
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Spring is here! Spring brings the wattle flowers and a new round of interesting objects into view in the heavens. Scorpio and Sagittarius slowly leave our night skies to be replaced by Orion and its nebulae, and bright Sirius. The Southern Cross grazes the southern horizon before rising again in summer. It still gets very cold at night, so don't forget to rug up before doing any extended star watching. A blanket or rug to sit on is a good idea, as well as a thermos of your favorite hot beverage.
While these pages are primarily intended for the use of people observing in Australia, non-Australian Southern Hemisphere observers will find most of the information here applies to them. The star information will be most helpful, when you correct your location for latitude (see the Stars section for appropriate location information). Most Moon phase, planet, comet and asteroid information will be very similar to what will be seen in New Zealand, South Africa and South America. Countries close to the equator (eg Indonesia) will have somewhat different southern and northern views, but the eastern and western views should be similar enough to get a good idea of what is going on.
Occultations, eclipses and aurora are highly location dependent, and it would be best to get a local almanac for these events. If there is no local almanac available, email me and I might be able to help you. I do try and give general info for occultations and eclipses in the Oceania area of the Southern Hemisphere.
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Aurora Alert UPDATED 01/04/22: The new solar cycle (25) is starting to heat up, with some M and X class flares and some nice auroral displays in Tasmania and Southern Australia. This bodes well for the rest of the soar cycle. During solar minimum, we were still getting occasional good auroral displays. August 26th 2018 saw an impressive display visible from NZ and Tasmania despite the full Moon. The last week of March 2017 saw some impressive aurora displays from Tasmania, Victoria, SA and WA. October 2016 saw a series of good but transient aurora in Tasmania and southern Victoria. July 2015 saw a massive storm seen as far north as mid NSW, again clouded out for large parts of Australia. 17-19/3/2015, the St. Patrick's Day aurora, massive storm seen as far north as Southern Queensland. Unfortunately clouded out for large parts of Australia. 26/2/2015, yet another good set of aurora were seen from Tasmania. 9/2/2015 There was a series of very good auroral events during February, some were seen in NSW, Victoria, SA and WA as well as Tasmania. Last year saw some nice events and a coronal mass ejection from an M class flare hit us square on on March 17 2013. Aurora were detected as far north as the QLD border, with some really nice events in Tasmania, and here are some images from that event.
Auroral images and descriptions from past geomagnetic storms are now at the auroral image web page.
Naturally, the best views of any aurora will be away from the city and bright lights. Aurora occur when charged particles from the solar wind enter Earths outer atmosphere and interact with the oxygen and nitrogen atoms producing eerie displays of coloured lights. During solar maximum, which occurs every 11 years (and solar cycle 25 should peak around 2024-2025), the number and speed of the particles are higher, allowing them to penetrate the Earth's magnetic field at lower latitudes than normal. Observers in Tasmania are likely to see green glows or sheets of light in the southern sky. Observers in Southern Victoria are more likely to see a red glow in the southern sky, although more spectacular displays are possible.
The Astronomical Society of Tasmania has a webpage devoted to this phenomenon. The Australian IPS radio and space services covers Aurora and related phenomena in very great detail (too much if you don't know much about them) but has a nice education page. Flinders Uni also has real time magnetometer readings, however, this will probably not mean much to most people.
Aurora will generally follow solar flares by about 2 days, and a number of instruments are watching the sun for these outbursts. The solar minimum occurred in 2006 and persisted for some time. While sunspot numbers, and hence flare rates are increasing, sometimes months will go by without an alert, then you have three in a week. The space weather site at http://www.spaceweather.com gives notice of when solar winds likely to cause aurora will arrive. Alternatively, send an email to email@example.com with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject and I will send you an email alert of any likely auroral event (or other interesting sky phenomena). However, even a strong solar flare is no guarantee that you will be able to see aurora, but it does increase the probability. Still more alternatively, there are the facebook pages Aurora Australis Tasmania, Aurora Australis Tasmania NOW! and Aurora Australis all do discussions and alerts.
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I try to update this page fairly regularly outside of the monthly postings. However sometimes things happen which I can't get in fast enough, or you forget to mark your calendar. If you would like to be alerted to or reminded of interesting astronomical or sky phenomena, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject. This is the old aurora alert list, but with auroras rare even though we are heading towards solar maximum (except for the occasional humdinger, like the September 2005 auroral event), it is doing double duty. I am running the list via MailChimp, and no personal data is harvested or passed on to third parties. Astroblog will have images when possible of these events soon after.
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Coming events Special events are bolded
Date Event January 1 January 2022 Occultation of Mars 4 January 2022 Earth at Perihelion 4 January 2022 Crescent Moon, Mercury, and Saturn close low in the evening twilight 6 January 2022 Jupiter and Crescent Moon close 30 January 2022 Crescent Moon forms a triangle with Mars and Venus February 2 February 2022 Mars close to M28 3 February 2022 Jupiter close to the thin crescent Moon low in the twilight 6 February 2022 Mars near globular cluster M22 13 February 2022 Mercury, Mars and Venus form a triangle in the morning sky. 27-28 February 2022 Crescent Moon, Mars and Venus form a triangle in the morning sky. March 1 March 2022 Mercury, Saturn and thin crescent Moon form a triangle in the morning twilight 3 March 2022 Mercury very close (0.6 degrees) from Saturn in morning twilight 21 March 2022 Earth at Equinox, Five bright planets visible in the morning twilight, Jupiter and Mercury close in the morning twilight. 28 March 2022 Crescent Moon, Saturn, Venus and Mars from a close massing in the morning twilight with the Moon above 29 March 2022 Crescent Moon, Saturn, Venus and Mars from a close massing in the morning twilight with the Moon below 31 March 2022 Thin crescent Moon close to Jupiter low in the morning twilight April All April 2022 Four bright planets in the morning sky Moon in the morning sky 5 April 2022 Saturn and Mars very close (0.3 degrees apart) in the morning sky 13 April 2022 Jupiter close to Neptune in the morning sky 26 April 2022 Mars close to the crescent Moon in the morning sky 27-28 April 2022 Crescent Moon close to Venus and Jupiter in the morning sky 28 April 2022 Venus and Neptune in close conjunction (< 30 arc minutes) in the morning sky May 1 May 2022 Venus and Jupiter very close in the morning sky (0.2 degrees apart) 6-7 May 2022 Eta Aquariid meteor shower 22 May 2022 Waning Moon above Saturn 25 May 2022 Mars, Jupiter and waning Moon form a triangle in morning sky 27 May 2022 Crescent Moon above Venus 30 May 2022 Mars and Jupiter very close in the morning sky (0.6 degrees apart) June 1 June 2022 Mars and Jupiter very close in the morning sky (1.0 degrees apart) 18 June 2022 Saturn near waning Moon low in the late evening sky 14 June 2022 Perigee Full Moon ("super Moon") 21 June 2022 Earth at solstice 22 June 2022 Mercury in head of Hyades near Aldebaran in morning sky, waning Moon near Jupiter 26 June 2022 Crescent Moon between Venus and Pleiades in the morning sky 27 June 2022 Crescent Moon near Mercury in the morning sky July 1 July 2022 Venus close to Aldebaran in the morning, forming a second eye for Taurus the Bull 4 July 2022 Earth at aphelion 14 July 2022 Syzygy Perigee full moon ("super Moon") closest of year 15 July 2022 Moon close to Saturn 19 July Moon close to Jupiter 22 July 2022 Waning crescent Moon close to Mars (within binocular field) 26 July 2022 Venus near crescent Moon in the morning twilight 29-30 July 2022 Southern Delta Aquarids meteor shower 30 July 2022 Mercury close to crescent moon in western evening twilight 31 July Mars and Uranus 2 degrees apart (in same binocular field) August 1-3 August 2022 Mars and Uranus less than 2 degrees apart (in same binocular filed) 4 August 2022 Mercury very close to Regulus (0.7 degrees) in the evening twilight 12 August 2022 Saturn close to Full Moon (perigee "super" Moon) 15 August 2022 Saturn at opposition 15 August 2022 Jupiter close to Waning Moon (1 degree) 20 August 2022 Mars near Moon in Morning 22 August 2022 Jupiter near Moon 29 August 2022 Mercury near thin crescent Moon in evening sky, Mars between Pleiades and Hyades in the morning sky September 3 September 2022 Mars forms second "eye" in Taurus the Bull with Aldebaran in morning sky 8 September 2022 Waxing moon close to Saturn in evening sky 11 September 2022 Waning Moon close to Jupiter in evening sky 23 September 2022 Earth at Equinox 27 September 2022 Jupiter at Opposition October 5 October 2022 Saturn and waxing Moon close in evening sky 8 October 2022 Jupiter and waxing Moon close in evening sky 14 October 2022 Mars and the waxing Moon close in evening sky 21-22 October 2022 Orionid meteor shower November 2 November 2022 Waxing Moon near Saturn in evening sky 4-5 November 2022 Waxing Moon near Jupiter in evening sky 8 November 2022 Total Lunar Eclipse 11 November 2022 Waxing Moon near Mars in evening sky 18 November 2022 Leonid Meteor Shower December 2 December 2022 Jupiter and waxing Moon close 8 December 2022 Mars at opposition and close to Full Moon 14 December 2022
Geminid Meteor shower in the morning (waning Moon close this year) 22 December 2022 Earth is at Solstice 24 December 2022 Venus and Mercury and thin crescent Moon are close in evening twilight. 26 December Saturn near crescent Moon 28-30 December 2022 Venus and Mercury at their closest in evening twilight. 29 December 2022 Jupiter close (1 degree) from the waning Moon in evening
Out in Space
Mars Curiosity Rover celebrates ten years on Mars.
Mars Express peers into Mars's watery crust.
The NASA wants help with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter images to spot clouds.
The newest rover, Perseverance makes new discoveries at Jezero Crater.
The Juno mission sees X-rays in Jupiter's aurora.
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First quarter on the 4th
Current Phase of the Moon.
Full Moon on the 11th
Last quarter on the 18th
New Moon is on the 26th
September 4; First Quarter Moon. September 8; perigee Moon. September 8; Saturn and waxing Moon close. September 11; Full Moon. September 11; the Full Moon close to Jupiter (2° away). September 18; Last Quarter Moon. September 17; Mars close to waning moon. September 20; apogee Moon. September 23; Earth at Equinox. September 26; New Moon.
An interactive calendar of the Moon's phases.
A view of the phase of the Moon for any date from 1800 A.D. to 2199, US based, so that the Moon is upside down with respect to us. The image above is from this source.
The phases of the Moon have been linked in the popular imagination to activities as diverse as madness and menstruation. However, careful study has shown that there are no such links. This web page outlines how the Moon is unconnected with a wide range of human activities.
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Finding planets, even with the directions below, can sometimes be difficult if you are unfamiliar with the sky. However, the Moon is very obvious, and can be a guide to location of planets. Not only that, the combination of the Moon and bright planet(s) is often very beautiful. Thus the guide below gives the dates when the planets and the Moon are close together.
Morning sky on Saturday September 3 as seen from Adelaide at 05:08 ACST (90 minutes before sunrise). Mars is in between the Pleiades and the bright red star Aldebaran. Similar views will be seen elsewhere in Australia at the equivalent local time (90 minutes before sunrise), click to embiggen.
Evening sky on Thursday September 11 as seen from Adelaide at 21:00 pm ACST. Jupiter is above the horizon and is within binocular distance of the Full Moon. Similar views will be seen from the rest of Australia at the equivalent local time.
Evening sky on Monday September 15 as seen from Adelaide at 19:01 pm ACST (60 minutes after sunset). mercury is low above the Western horizon. Similar views will be seen from the rest of Australia at the equivalent local time (60 minutes after sunset).
Mercury is high(ish) in evening sky, and remains high in the first half of the month then rapidly heads towards the horizon and is soon lost to view. It is low above western horizon at astronomical twilight, and hour and a half after sunset at after sunset when the sky is fully dark in the first week of the month and gets progressively lower. By mid-month it is best seen an hour after sunset (nautical twilight and is soon lost in the sunset glow after this, returning to the morning sky late in the month.
On the 1st Mercury is just over a hand-span from from the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On the 15th Mercury is just over a hand-span from from the western horizon an hour after sunset. By the 30th Mercury is lost in the twilight.
Venus is lost in the twilight glow and will return to the evening sky in December.Earth is at equinox on Friday, 23 September when day and night are roughly equal in duration.
Mars is becoming brighter in the morning sky as it nears opposition. On the 1st to 3rd Mars passes between the Pleiades and Hyades, an excellent morning sight with Mars forming a second eye for Taurus the Bull with the red star Aldebaran. By the 13th Mars has left Aldebaran behind. On September 17th, Mars is under 5 ° from the waning Moon. The pair just seen together in binoculars.On the 1st Mars is just under six hand-spans from the northern horizon an hour and a half before sunrise, forming a line with Saturn, and Jupiter. By the 15th Mars is still just under six hand-spans from the northern horizon an hour and a half before sunrise. On the 30th Mars is just over six hand-spans from the northern horizon an hour and a half before sunrise. Jupiter rises shortly after the sky is fully dark and climbs higher in the evening sky and is an excellent telescopic object in the late evening early morning. Jupiter is at opposition, when it is biggest and brightest as seen from Earth on the 27th. At this time, it is visible the whole night long. On the 11th Jupiter rises just below the Full Moon, with the pair in the same binocular field and Jupiter only 2° away. On the 1st Jupiter is just under three hand-spans from the eastern horizon around 11 pm local time. On the 15th Jupiter is just over a hand-span from the eastern horizon an hour and a half after sunset. By the 30th it is just under four hand-spans from the eastern horizon an hour and a half after sunset.
In either binoculars or a telescope Jupiter's Moons are always interesting. Especially Sept 3,13,19 and 22 and 28.
Times are ACST, add 30 minutes for AEST and 2.5 hours for AWST. adjust for daylight savings as necessary. Moons, Sat I= Io, II = Europa, III = Ganymede, IV = Callisto Jupiter Events from 01 September 2022 to 30 September 2022 Date Time (LMT) Sat Event 1, Sep, 12:52:00 AM, III,Shadow transit end 1, Sep, 08:44:00 PM, II,Shadow transit end 2, Sep, 02:57:00 AM, II,Transit end 3, Sep, 02:30:00 AM, I,Shadow transit start 3, Sep, 05:39:00 AM, I,Transit start 3, Sep, 09:58:00 PM, I,Eclipse disappearance 3, Sep, 10:21:00 PM, I,Occultation reappearance 3, Sep, 11:13:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 4, Sep, 12:32:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 4, Sep, 01:38:00 AM, I,Shadow transit start 4, Sep, 02:58:00 AM, I,Transit start 4, Sep, 05:46:00 AM, I,Shadow transit end 5, Sep, 12:08:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 5, Sep, 12:43:00 AM, III,Occultation reappearance 5, Sep, 02:22:00 AM, II,Shadow transit start 5, Sep, 02:55:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 5, Sep, 04:08:00 AM, II,Transit start 5, Sep, 07:53:00 PM, I,Eclipse disappearance 5, Sep, 09:27:00 PM, I,Occultation reappearance 5, Sep, 11:59:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 6, Sep, 12:12:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 6, Sep, 06:37:00 PM, I,Transit start 6, Sep, 07:09:00 PM, I,Shadow transit end 6, Sep, 07:51:00 PM, I,Transit end 6, Sep, 08:51:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 6, Sep, 09:22:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 7, Sep, 01:33:00 AM, II,Eclipse disappearance 7, Sep, 03:53:00 AM, II,Occultation reappearance 7, Sep, 04:29:00 AM, I,Eclipse disappearance 7, Sep, 05:46:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 7, Sep, 06:38:00 PM, III,Shadow transit start 8, Sep, 01:37:00 AM, III,Transit start 8, Sep, 09:28:00 PM, II,Shadow transit end 9, Sep, 05:35:00 AM, II,Transit end 10, Sep, 03:15:00 AM, I,Shadow transit start 10, Sep, 07:55:00 PM, II,Occultation reappearance 10, Sep, 11:06:00 PM, I,Eclipse disappearance 11, Sep, 12:33:00 AM, I,Occultation reappearance 11, Sep, 01:27:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 11, Sep, 03:07:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 11, Sep, 03:52:00 AM, I,Shadow transit start 11, Sep, 04:53:00 AM, I,Transit start 11, Sep, 06:57:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 12, Sep, 02:03:00 AM, III,Eclipse disappearance 12, Sep, 02:27:00 AM, III,Occultation reappearance 12, Sep, 04:17:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 12, Sep, 04:40:00 AM, II,Shadow transit start 12, Sep, 04:53:00 AM, II,Transit start 12, Sep, 06:53:00 PM, II,Transit end 12, Sep, 10:10:00 PM, I,Eclipse disappearance 12, Sep, 11:21:00 PM, I,Occultation reappearance 13, Sep, 12:44:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 13, Sep, 01:56:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 13, Sep, 08:32:00 PM, I,Transit start 13, Sep, 08:35:00 PM, I,Shadow transit end 13, Sep, 08:53:00 PM, I,Transit end 13, Sep, 10:45:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 13, Sep, 11:05:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 14, Sep, 05:35:00 AM, II,Eclipse disappearance 14, Sep, 08:22:00 PM, III,Shadow transit start 15, Sep, 02:22:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 15, Sep, 10:13:00 PM, II,Shadow transit end 18, Sep, 03:09:00 AM, I,Occultation reappearance 18, Sep, 03:41:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 18, Sep, 05:42:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 18, Sep, 07:42:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 19, Sep, 03:58:00 AM, III,Eclipse disappearance 19, Sep, 04:11:00 AM, III,Occultation reappearance 19, Sep, 05:38:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 19, Sep, 09:31:00 PM, II,Transit end 20, Sep, 12:25:00 AM, I,Eclipse disappearance 20, Sep, 01:15:00 AM, I,Occultation reappearance 20, Sep, 01:29:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 20, Sep, 03:39:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 20, Sep, 09:20:00 PM, I,Transit start 20, Sep, 10:27:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 20, Sep, 10:37:00 PM, I,Shadow transit end 21, Sep, 12:40:00 AM, I,Transit end 21, Sep, 12:50:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 21, Sep, 06:59:00 PM, I,Transit start 21, Sep, 07:12:00 PM, I,Shadow transit end 21, Sep, 07:44:00 PM, I,Transit end 21, Sep, 10:05:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 22, Sep, 03:07:00 AM, III,Shadow transit start 22, Sep, 07:09:00 PM, II,Shadow transit start 22, Sep, 07:15:00 PM, II,Transit start 22, Sep, 10:58:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 23, Sep, 06:49:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 24, Sep, 04:45:00 AM, I,Shadow transit start 24, Sep, 11:33:00 PM, II,Eclipse disappearance 25, Sep, 12:36:00 AM, II,Occultation reappearance 25, Sep, 02:30:00 AM, I,Eclipse disappearance 25, Sep, 08:27:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 27, Sep, 12:09:00 AM, II,Transit end 27, Sep, 02:14:00 AM, I,Occultation disappearance 27, Sep, 02:43:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 27, Sep, 03:10:00 AM, I,Occultation reappearance 27, Sep, 05:23:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 27, Sep, 10:05:00 PM, I,Transit start 28, Sep, 12:21:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 28, Sep, 12:22:00 AM, I,Shadow transit end 28, Sep, 02:33:00 AM, I,Transit end 28, Sep, 02:35:00 AM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 28, Sep, 07:00:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 28, Sep, 07:02:00 PM, I,Transit start 28, Sep, 09:25:00 PM, I,Shadow transit start 28, Sep, 09:33:00 PM, I,Transit end 28, Sep, 09:37:00 PM, I,Shadow transit end 28, Sep, 11:52:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 29, Sep, 03:52:00 AM, III,Transit start 29, Sep, 06:47:00 PM, III,Transit end 29, Sep, 06:50:00 PM, III,Shadow transit end 29, Sep, 08:59:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transit 29, Sep, 09:04:00 PM, II,Transit start 29, Sep, 11:43:00 PM, II,Shadow transit start 30, Sep, 07:34:00 PM, n/a,Great Red Spot transitSaturn is now visible all evening long setting in the Ealy morning. Saturn was at opposition on the 15th of August and is visible high above the northeastern sky when the sky is fully dark. Saturn will be high enough for good telescopic observation in the mid evening and early morning. Saturn forms a very shallow triangle with delta and gamma Capricorn, becoming more elongated as the month wears on. Sep 6 and 17 sees Titan close to Saturn. On the 8th (morning 19th) the waxing Moon is close to Saturn. On the 1st Saturn is just under six hand-spans above the eastern horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On the 15th Saturn is just over six hand-spans above the north-eastern horizon an hour and a half after sunset On the 30th Saturn is just under eleven hand-spans above the northern horizon an hour and a half after sunset.
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Iridium Flares, the International Space Station and other satellites
See this amazing site for images of the space station taken through a telescope.
The Iridium satellites have deorbited, However, other satellites do flares as well (bit more rarely) the visibility of Iridium flares is VERY dependent on observer position, so you need a prediction for your spot within about 30 km. Hence I'm referring you to a web site for predictions rather than doing it myself.
- Heavens above, an excellent site. You need to choose your location or manually enter a longitude and latitude it gives the visibility of the International space station and heaps of other satellites. I find this the most useful site.
See the International Space Station at your Location. Courtesy of Heavens above. Choose your location from the drop down box
Or type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg Darwin is -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.
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Date Meteor Shower ZHR IlluminationThe figure ZHR is zenithal hourly rate. This is the number of meteors that a single observer would see per hour if the shower's "point of origin", or radiant, were at the zenith and the sky were dark enough for 6.5-magnitude stars to be visible to the naked eye. Illumination gives an idea of how dark the sky is, the lower the figure, the darker the sky.
There are no major meteor showers this month.
You can still see sporadic meteors. Rates seen from the Southern Hemisphere are around 5 random meteors being seen per hour during the late morning hours and 2 per hour during the evening. The evening rates will be reduced during the times around the full Moon due to interference by the Moons light.
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There are no unaided eye comets visible at the moment.A list of current comet ephemerides is at the MPC.
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No interesting naked-eye occultations this month.
No significant eclipses this month.
Find local sunrise/sunset and twilight times for your city or location (courtesy of Heavens Above).
Use either the drop down box for the listed cities, or type in your latitude, longitude and city in the boxes below.
Type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.
While most stars seem to shine with a constant brightness, there are some that undergo regular, dramatic change in brightness. The classic variables are Mira and Algol. Mira should have reached its maximum on July 16, and now is no longer visible to the unaided eye.
Algol at 2:12 am AEST on 12 September. Algol is indicated by the circle. Click image to embiggen.
Algol is a classic variable star, but is usually hard to see from the southern hemisphere. Algol is currently only visible in the morning (low on the north-eastern horizon from around 1 am). You may need to observe it over a couple of might to be confident you can see it fade from magnitude 2.1 to magnitude 3.4 (from abut as bright as Delta Crucis to about as bright as epislon Crucis, the third and fourth brightest stars of the Southern cross). There are three eclipse visible this month.
Minima Algol (ACST) 09/04/2022 @ 02:58 am 09/15/2022 @ 02:12 pm 09/24/2022 @ 04:38 am
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The southern evening sky at 10:00 pm AEST in Melbourne on September 1 (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg 10:00 pm ACST Adelaide, 9:00 pm AEST Brisbane).
All descriptions here are based on the view from Melbourne at 10.00 pm AEST on 1 September and assumes a fairly level horizon. Starset occurs progressively earlier each day, so these descriptions are valid for 9.00 pm on the 15th and 8.00pm AEST on the 30th Readers from other time zones should see roughly the same views at 10.00 pm local time. Corrections for cities other than Melbourne are given below.
How do I find east, west, north and south?
- Readers in Adelaide and Auckland should see roughly the same views at the local equivalent of 10.00 pm AEDST.
- Readers in Hobart and Christchurch must decrease descriptions to the North by about five finger widths and increase those to the south by the same amount.
- Readers in Sydney, Fremantle, Perth, Santiago and Capetown should add 3 finger widths to the northern descriptions, and subtract 3 finger widths to the south.
- Readers in Brisbane, Alice Springs, Rio de Janerio and Johannesburg must adjust North/South descriptions by two hand spans.
- Readers in Darwin, Cairns, Brazilia, La Paz, Lusaka and Lima must adjust North/South descriptions by about 4-5 hand spans.
Facing east, the faint constellation of Erandius, the river, straddles the the horizon and meanders upwards and southwards to where brightest star, Achernar, points to the small Magellanic cloud.
To the left is Cetus, the whale. Beta Ceti is a modestly bright star six handspans above the horizon, the rest of Cetus is relatively faint. Mira, Omicron Ceti (O on the maps) is a variable star with a period of about 332 days.
Cetus also hosts a nearby sun like star. Tau Ceti is 11.4 light years away from earth, looking 10 handspans up from east and two to the left is magnitude 2 Deneb Kaitos, beta Ceti. Two handspans below and slightly to the left is eta Ceti, two handspans to the right of eta Ceti, forming a triangle with eta and beta, is Tau Ceti.
Five handspans to the left of Cetus is Pisces, a rather non-descript constellation.
Continuing up from Beta Ceti on towards the zenith we find bright Fomalhaut, alpha star of Piscis Austrinus about 10 handspans above the horizon. Next to Fomalhaut is Grus, the crane, with a distinctive, battered cross-like shape.
just below the zenith, about to the right (north) of Fomalhaut is the battered triangle of Capricornius, the Water Goat. Of interest as well is alpha Capricorni, the brightish star at top left hand corner of the triangle that is Capricorn. This is a naked eye double star.
directly west just below the zenith is the distinctive "teapot" shape of Sagittarius, the archer. The "teapot" is upside down, the "spout" is pointing south-west, its "handle" north, and its "lid" points down to the right (north-western horizon). This constellations panoply of clusters and nebula are still easily seen.
M24, an open cluster about two fingerwidths to the right and slightly down from the "lid" of the teapot should be visible to the naked eye, just above this and slightly to the left by about a hand span is a number of open clusters and a patch of luminosity that marks the lagoon nebula. M22, a globular cluster, is close to the lid (between and about a fingerwidths left of the two stars that make the bottom of the lid), should be visible as a dim, fuzzy star on a dark night. Between these clusters and the "lid" itself runs the Great Sagittarius Star-cloud. The center of our galaxy lies in Sagittarius, and on a dark night, the traceries of the Milky Way and its dust clouds are particularly beautiful. A high definition map of Sagittarius can be found here.
Continuing on west, the rambling constellation of Ophiucus occupies the space between Sagitarius and the western horizon.
Directly to the left of Ophiuchus and below Sagittarius is the distinctive "hook" shape of Scorpio, the scorpion, stretches down towards the western horizon. Going up from the south-western horizon by about five handspans you will see six bright stars forming a T, with the tail of the "T" nearly perpendicular to the horizon and a curved "tail" of stars. The bright red giant star Antares (Alpha Scorpius, the middle star in the three stars forming the tail of the T) is quite prominent. The area around Scorpio is quite rewarding in binoculars, and there is a small but pretty globular cluster about one fingerwidth above and to the north of Antares (between Antares and the leading star of the tail of the T). It can be hard to see in city conditions, and will be especially difficult to see this close to the horizon. A high definition map of Scorpio is here. Just before the point where the tail curves around is a series of star clusters that make up the so-called false comet. The illusion of a comet is quite strong in small binoculars as well, but in stronger binoculars the clusters are quite clear.
Returning to the Zenith and working towards the north-western horizon. 7 handspans down from the zenith is the faint but rambling constellation of Aquarius, just below the battered triangle of Aquarius.
10 handspans down from the Zenith (and five above the north-western horizon) is the start of the constellation Pegasus, the winged horse. The distinctive box shape of the main constellation lies around six handspans to the right of due north.
At the same level as Pegasus, but seven handspans to the left is the three bright stars that mark Aquila, the Eagle, with the brightest, white Altair, being in the center.
Continuing down towards the northern horizon, the next bright star is just a one and a half handspans above the horizon, and almost due north. This is Deneb, alpha star of Cygnus, the swan. The rest of the constellation forms a wide but distinctive inverted cross above Deneb with the long axis pointing west, almost parallel to the horizon.
Now return to the zenith and go South. Directly south is Peacock, alpha Pavonis, this is a reasonably bright magnitude 2 star that heads the large, but dim, constellation of Pavo the Peacock. Delta Pavonis, about two handspans below and one to the left of alpha Pavonis, is one of the handful of sun-like stars within 20 lightyears of Earth that might have terrestrial planets in its habitable zone. A little to the left and below Peacock by around two handspans brings you to the edge of the dim constellation of Tucana, the Toucan. The first brightish star you enocunter is Alpha Tucana. Just below Tucana and about a handspan and a half to the left is the Small Magellanic cloud, the second largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies to the Milky Way. This feature is best viewed on a dark night, away from the city. In this nebulosity is what looks to be a fuzzy star, this is 47 Tucana (marked 104 on the map), a spectacular globular cluster that is very nice through binoculars.
To the right of and some what below Delta Pavonis by about 4 handspans is the boxy shape of Ara, the Altar.
To the left of alpha Tucana by 5 handspans is Ankaa, alpha Phoenicis, of the constellation of the Phoenix, another relatively non-descript constellation.
To the below alpha Tucana by 5 handspans and left by about one is bright Achernar, alpha Erandius.
Continuing directly down from Peacock by four handspans is Octans, the octant (a navigating instrument the was the forerunner of the sextant). Octans houses the south celestial pole, and the faint Sigma Octanis, the South Polar star, which is the southern equivalent of Polaris. At magnitude 5.5 you will be stretched to see it under city conditions, but it is five handspans directly below Peacock, forming the apex of an inverted triangle with two other faint stars (tau and chi Octanis).
Directly below Octans by around three handspans is the faint Chameleon, a narrow "kite" of four stars with the long axis parrallel to the horizon. To the left of Chameleon by a little over 3 handspans is the extended nebulosity of the Large Magellanic cloud, the largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies. Binoculars will reveal a rather attractive nebula near it, the Tarantula nebula.
To the right of Chameleon by around four handspans are the bright, distinctive alpha and beta Centauri, the so called "pointers", five handspans from the south-west horizon, with alpha being the yellow star which is furthest from the horizon, and beta the blue white star below. Between these stars and Chameleon lies the faint constellation Musca the fly. Between the pointers and Pavo lie the dim triangular constellations of Trianglum and Circinus (the compass). Most of the rest of Centaurus, the Centaur, is too close to, or below, the Horizon to be seen properly.
Alpha Centauri is the closest star to our sun at around 4 light years. However, recent measurements with the Hippacaros satellite put the system 300 million kilometers further away than previously thought. Alpha Centauri is actually a triple star, consisting of two sun-like stars and a red dwarf, Proxima centauri, which is the closest of the triple stars to earth.
Returning to alpha Centauri, following a line south through the "pointers" brings you to the Southern Cross, two handspans below and to the left the pointers (one and a half handspans from beta Centauri to beta Crucis) and three handspans above the horizon at about the 4 o'clock position on a clock. A high definition map of Centaurus and Crux is here.
The Southern Cross is, as expected, a cross shaped formation with Acrux (alpha Crucis) and gamma Crucis forming the long axis of the cross (pointing down to the south-west, with bright Acrux on the end of the axis away from the horizon). Beta and delta Crucis, now nearly horizontal, form the cross piece of the cross. Just to the right Acrux is the coal sack. This dark area against the glow of the milky way represents a large dust cloud and is usually clearly visible in dark skies, but will be hard to see this close to the horizon. The Jewel box in the Cross is a small open cluster just above Beta Crucis. It is quite beautiful, but requires strong binoculars or a small telescope to see properly.
Just on the southern horizon, almost due south is Carina (the keel of the former constellation Argo Navis). Its position makes viewing the many spectacular clusters in this constellation difficult or impossible. Bright Canopus is barely the south-eastern horizon, almost directly below the large Magellanic cloud, and will rise in the following weeks.
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How to use the maps
Comparison of a section of a skymap showing the Southern Cross (Crux) and pointers, with the appearance of the night sky. The map and sky are for May 1 at 10.00 pm, facing south. Both show approximately 30 degrees (5 hand-spans) of sky just above the horizon
The maps look a little busy, as they cover all sky from horizon to zenith. The grid lines are navigational helpers; each horizontal or vertical line covers 30 degrees of arc (the gridlines in the illustration show 15 degrees of arc), which is roughly five hand-spans (where a hand-span is the width of your hand, held flat light a "stop" sign at arms length). As you can see from the way the lines bunch up. The map is a little distorted, due to trying to project a spherical surface on a flat surface. The horizon is the lowest curved line on the map (for technical software reasons I can't block things out below the Horizon). Constellations are linked by lines and their names are in italics. Stars are shown as circles of varying size, the bigger the circle the brighter the star. The stars are named with their Bayer letter (eg a - alpha, the brightest star in a constellation, a Crucis is the brightest star in Crux). Variable stars are shown as hollow circles, double stars are marked with a line (eg a, b and g Crucis are all double stars, that look quite beautiful in a small telescope). Clusters and Nebula brighter than magnitude 6.0 are marked as broken circles (eg. the Jewel box cluster next to b Crucis above which is best viewed in binoculars or a telescope) and squares respectively. To find Crux for example, locate Crux on the appropriate map (eg. see the illustration above). Holding the Map, face either east or west (depending on the map), then use the grid lines to determine how far over and up you should look, then look for the Crux pattern in that part of the Sky.
PNG MapsA view of the Eastern September sky at 10.00pm AEST on 1 September can be downloaded here (sepsky_e.png 30 Kb) and a view of the western September sky can be downloaded here (sepsky_w.png 30 Kb). These are more compact files but don't have a lot of resolution.
PDF MapsHigh Resolution PDF files can be obtained for the eastern (110 Kb) and the western (110 Kb) horizon maps.
The Zenith Map (110 Kb) shows you the whole sky. You will need to face the one of the compass points, then hold the map with the appropriate compass point on the map at the bottom of the page.
You will need a PDF viewer such as Adobe Acrobat or GhostView to view and print them. They look slightly worse on-screen than the PNG files, but print much better and come with legends.
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[ December Skies] [ February Skies] [ March Skies] [ April Skies] [ May Skies] [ June Skies] [ July Skies] [ August Skies] Return to Menu
Cheers! And good star gazing!
Ian's Astrophotography GallerySome of the photographs/images I have taken in recent years of astronomical phenomena that may be of interest.
- Partial Lunar eclipse. Partial Lunar eclipse, July 5, 2001
- My Solar eclipse report. Pictures from the Dec 4, 2002 solar eclipse in South Australia
- Transit of Mercury pictures! 7 May 2003
- Images of the partial solar eclipse 24 Nov 2003
- Transit of Venus July 8 2004 report
- Images of Jupiter, taken, after an enormous struggle, with my webcam, April 2005
- Mosaics of the Moon, more fun with my webcam, April-May 2005
- Animation of Sunrise on the Moon November 2006
- Animation of A shadow Transit on Jupiter May 2007
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- OnLine Astronomical Societies in Australia, from the Astronomical Society of New South Wales Inc.
- Astronomical Society of Australia
- Mornington Peninsula Astronomy Society
- Astronomy Guild of Australia
- Ice in Space
- A clickable star map for Victoria
- Monthly free Star maps. High quality, monthly maps for Southern and Northern Skies, has lists of interesting objects. Requires Adobe Acrobat to print.
- Gordon Garradd's Astronomy Page
- Peter Enzerinks Astronomy page - Web based telescope/eyepiece calculator and other southern sky tidbits.
- Buying a telescope in Australia, lots of helpful hints.
- Anglo-Australian Observatory
- MSSSO - Mt Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatory
- ATNF - Australian Telescope National Facility
- Parks Radio telescope facility
- Spaceguard Australia the proposed search for Near Earth Objects including meteroids.
- Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex
- Star Class, Astronomy Education
- Information about Aboriginal astronomy.
- Australian weather forecasts
- Sky and Space, Australia's Astronomy magazine.
- Planetary Society, Australian Volunteers events diary.
- Australian Astronomy
Astronomy for Kids
- Adelaide Planetarium
- Canberra Planetarium and Observatory
- Launceston Planetarium
- Science Centre and Planetarium (Wollongong)
- Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium
- Perth Observatory and Planetarium
- Museum of Victoria Planetarium, Skynotes Index
- The Cosmos Centre in Charleville
- ABC Space for Kids, Games, information and more.
- Star Child NASA space information for kis 5-13.
- Interactive site on the Sun, good kids resources
- ABC Space for Kids, Games, information and more.
- Astronomy for Kids
- Astronomy for Kids (different site to the one above, and a bit simple, but lots of good images).
- Kids astronomy information from Astronomy Magazine
- SEDS, home of the Nine Planets Tour, and much much more
- The Planetary Society
- Center for Backyard Astrophysics
- Amateur Radio Telescopes
- International Occulation Timing Society
- Phil Plait's Bad Astronomy pages (very educational)
- SKY Online - Your Astronomy Source on the World Wide Web
- Astronomy Magazine
- Stellar distances
- Space Weather site (with Meteor counts)
- Near Earth Object home page (also follows comets, including LINEAR S4 and meteor showers)
- A 3D map of satellites orbiting the Earth in real time! Simply amazing!
- The Anglo Australian Observatories 3D virtual tour through a 3D map of the Cosmos. Mind Blowing!
- Views of extrasolar planets seen from the Southern sky, stunning Java-driven map with heaps of (complex) info.
- Stellarium, free (but large) photorealistic sky charting software. What I use for the horizon views.
- Celestia, free 3D space travel software, see the Earth from Mars, see the Moon of EL62, see Saturn rise on Titan.
- Ian's Celestia resources. Save these files into the "Extras" directory
- Script to show Conjunctions of Earth from Mars.
- Definition File for asteroid 87 Sylvia and her two moons (see story here).
- Definition File for Pluto's two new Moons P1 and P2.
- Definition file for three Neptunian extrasolar planets of HD 69830.
- Asteroid 2004 VD17, which will not hit the Earth.
- Definition file for Comet 2006/P1 McNaught
- Definition file for for the Gliese 581 system that contains the most Earth-like world yet.
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Charts, Books and Software for AstronomyStellarium, the free photorealistic sky chart that I use for my general charts, is now available in a web version, it is not as versatile as the desktop version, but handy if you are out and about. it Runs under a variety of browsers on standard PC's, Chromebooks and iPads. https://stellarium-web.org/ The is also a mobile Stellarium version, but it costs money (around $13, not much, but still). If you would like to have charts available all the time, rather than relying on mine, for between $2-$20 you can pick up a planisphere from a newsagent or bookshop (or for a bit more you can get fancy ones from Australian Geographic, the ABC shop or the other Australian Geographic look alike shop, or the Wilderness Society, or even a binocular/ optical store). The planisphere won't give you position of the planets, so you will need to get the planet rise/set times. These can be found in most serious newspapers (the Age, the Australian, SMH etc. The Australian is probably the best bet for budding amateurs). The combination of planisphere and rise/set times is the best value for beginners though, if you are not too worried about identifying star clusters in your binoculars.
Touring the Universe through Binoculars Atlas is now freeware http://www.philharrington.net/tuba.htm it can print observing charts, but has a few annoying quirks. These include having no horizon line, and moving about is a bit irritating.
I use a combination of a 1962 star chart, the Australian Astronomy 2022 almanac and SkyMap Pro 11.0 . I highly recommend the Australian Astronomy 2022 almanac. It is more helpful for planetary/comet/asteroidal observations and eclipses than for double stars, clusters galaxies etc, but is an excellent resource for Australian observers and anyone who would like to seriously follow the planets in Australia should have this almanac. It has easy to follow month-by-month summary information, as well as detailed charts, tables and whole sky maps. It is easily navigated. The Almanac is often in big bookstores or optical shops, or email email@example.com to purchase a copy directly for those outside major population centres. The Australian Astronomy almanac comes out in around November for the following year, and is now approx $30.
Sky and Telescope now also do an Australian version of their magazine.
For detailed chart drawing and timing of events, as well as satellite track predictions I feed the information from the almanac into the SkyMap Pro 11.0, planetarium program. This is a very handy program which prints maps of every possible orientation and scale. The maps on this page are produced by SkyMap. An update to SkyMap 12.0 which handles Windows 10 is now available, If anyone does still wish to buy a copy of SkyMap Pro 12, please email Chris Marriott at "firstname.lastname@example.org".
A shareware version of SkyMap that runs on windows 3.x, and win95 can be found here http://www.winsite.com/info/pc/win3/desktop/skymp21a.zip this is approximately 640 Kb zipped.
A shareware version of the win95 only version 5.0 is here http://www.download.net.au/cgi-bin/dl?13607
Other highly recommended Sky charting packages (win95/98/2000/XP/Win7-10 sorry) are:
Cartes du Ciel at https://www.ap-i.net/skychart//en/start (FREE) a bit messy to install but very good.
Stellarium at http://stellarium.sourceforge.net/ (FREE) stunning photorealistic program, but requires a grunty PC.
Celestron Sky Portal https://www.celestron.com/pages/skyportal-mobile-app is a good free mobile phone/tablet app
Sky Safari https://skysafariastronomy.com/ is another nice mobile astronomy app, but the Apple app store want to sell me Skysafari 6 rather than the freeware Sky Safari 5 (currently available on Google play).
TheSkyVarious packages from $49 US to $249 US
Stary Night various versions from $50 US for the basic pack (10 day trial of the basic pack at http://www.siennasoft.com/english/downloads.shtml) up to eye watering $250 USD versions.
Earth Centered Universe $88 AUD (shareware version at http://www.nova-astro.com/)
On the other hand a standard Sky Atlas for serious observing (much handier than carting a computer with you) such as Norton's Star Atlas can range from $35 to $90.
In these days of hand-held devices (smart phones and tablets), there is a plethora of sky charting apps you can take into the field with you. I use GoogleSky for android and a cut down version of Stellarium for iPad, my most used hand-held app is Heavens Above for Android, for watching ISS passes. This is one app that has changed my astronomical life. There are many more, many free or less than 1 AUD to download. Celestron has a great free planetarium app (although big at 154 Mb) for Android, iPhone and iPad, SkyPortal (see links above).
This is not meant to be a product endorsement of any kind (outside of the Australian Astronomy 2022 almanac. For any budding astronomers out there, it is fantastic value and no, I don't have any commercial interest in it, but I did win bronze in their website Olympics).
This page can be used freely for any non-commercial purpose but please attribute it correctly. However, see the disclaimer.
Ian with any suggestions
Created: Wednesday, 1 April 1998, 11:22:13 PM
Last Updated: Sunday, 4 September, 2022, 11:30:13 PM