The Adelaide MR Website
This page collates resources on the topic of Hydrogen MR spectroscopy
Prepared by Greg Brown at  Royal Adelaide Hospital  MRI Unit, Adelaide  South Australia 
Updated:  May 25 2006
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MRS Texts & Readings

MRS at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

We operate a  Siemens VISION (1.5T) scanner with the current version of the commercial proton spectroscopy software. In October 1999 we first used MRS in a six  week trial (provided by Medical Applications).  Shortly thereafter it was clear that MRS was a helpful tool in some situations so we decided to purchase the facility.   Hospital purchasing systems being what they are we installed MRS in July 2000.
The scanner is extremely well shimmed, and soon we will have the last of the eddy current compensations completed.
At this stage the radiographers have received basic applications training from Marianne Vorbuchner of Siemens Erlangen. We are introducing MRS, as appropriate, and performing it on normal subjects as the bookings permit.  We have entered into a joint research project of cerebral mass lesions and infections with an established MRS institute (IMRR University of Sydney) to build a network of contacts and develop our experience.
As part of my role as research radiographer, I am creating sets of example spectra for in-house staff use, using the web page format to add to the small stock of web based MRS information for radiographers and radiologists.
I hope you find the pages useful.

The Siemens Numaris 3 Spectroscopy Package
GE Probe users will notice many differences with the descriptions of the Siemens software.   The current Numaris 3 MRS tools require manual adjustment of shimming and water suppression pulses for best results in a range of locations.  This is a weakness if you just want point and click MRS, but a strength if you want to ensure consistent optimal results.   The package has automatic post processing of MRS raw data as well as the option to modify post processing settings and tools.
Spectra are returned in the normal image format or can be exported as bitmaps or text.
Naturally there are some terminology differences as well
SVS  Single Voxel Spectroscopy
CSI Chemical shift Imaging (slice selected multi-voxel spectroscopy)
SE Double inversion Spin Echo spectroscopy. 
Three slice selective pulses (90 180 180) preceded by a frequency selective water suppression excitation pulse and crusher gradient (CHESS). 
In essence the same as PRESS.  Can be used with a water reference scan if desired 
SE is available with longer echo times (SE135, SE270), in SVS and CSI sequences
STEAM Stimulated echo spectroscopy 
Three slice selective pulses (90 180 180) preceded by a frequency selective water suppression excitation pulse and crusher gradient (CHESS). 
In essence the same as GE STEAM except that the water reference sequence is performed with some manual intervention. 
SVS STEAM is available with short and long echo times (STEAM10, STEAM20, STEAM135, STEAM 270). 
CSI STEAM is available with a short TE (CSI_STEAM20)
The Numaris 4 MRS package (for Syngo and MRease machines) will include different shim methods, significantly more positioning options, high levels of automation, and retain the power to intervene as the operator decides.
MRS Tips
Siemens Numaris 3 SVS SE 135  The Easy Way

MRS Papers and Presentations

Stathis Gotsis' Proton MRS Page Dr Stathis Gotsis Hellenic Open University   Great Spectra Collection
MRS of the Human Brain. Review 2001 
PDF version     HTML Version
Brian Ross & Stefan Bluml 
web publication by Wiley, The Anatomical record
MR Spectroscopy Unmasks Surprises  in NF-1 Dr M.B. Denkla June 1999
The Future of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging Andrew A. Maudsley Ph.D and Michael W. Weiner M.D. January 1997
Proton chemical shifts and J-couplings for low molecular weight metabolites V. Govindaraju, K. Young, and A. A. Maudsley
Low Cost Digital Gauss Meter Robert Dykstra
Diagnosis of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Will in-vivo Proton MRS Play a Role? Haseler LJ, Sibbitt WL Jr, Mojtahedzadeh HN, Reddy S, Agarwal VP, McCarthy DM May 1999
Shimming Ain't Magic The Art of shimming high resolution NMR magnets Virginia W. Miner and Woodrow W. Conover In HTML and PDF

MRS Web Sites
Compilation of MRI MRS &  ESR Educational Software
Peter Lundberg
The NMR Knowledge Base
MRU Brain Research Unit Veterans Hospital and UCSF 
San Franciso USA
Richard M Lucas Centre for MRS & MRI
Stanford CA USA
Laborotory of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 
Prague, Czech Republic
MRUI Project
A Graphical User Interface that allows MR spectroscopists to easily perform time-domain analysis of in vivo MR data. Avaliable in MAtlab and Java versions. Free License available for non-commercial research uses.

MRSpectroscopy Texts & recommended readings
A Complete Introduction to Modern NMR Spectroscopy
Roger S. Macomber 
Paperback - 400 pages 1 edition (December 9, 1997)John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471157368  $59.95.
Click the Icon to the left to order from
Click see book at
Clinical MR: First Principles   Nouha Mikhael Salibi, Mark A. Brown  Order page of $59.95 US
Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Theory and Practice   Marinus T. Vlaardingerbroek, Jacques A. Den Boer  Order page from $79.95
Classification of Biopsy Confirmed Brain Tumours Using Single Voxel MR Spectroscopy
Meyerand, M.E. Pipas, J.M. Mamourian, A. Tor, D. Tosteson, D. Dunn, J.F. AJNR20: 117-123 January 1999
Proton MR Spectroscopy of Paediatric Cerebellar Tumours.
Wang, Z. Sutton, L.N. Cnaan, A. Haselgrove, J.C. Rorke, L.B. Zhao, H Bilaniuk, L.T. Zimmerman, R.A.  AJNR 16: 1821 - 1833 October 1995

Current MR Spectroscopy Projects at Royal Adelaide Hospital MRI